What Is Bottleneck In Computer Science | PW Skills

Computer science is a field that requires a high degree of precision and accuracy. For computer programs to run smoothly, it is important to identify the precise source of any errors or inefficiencies. This is where the term "bottleneck" comes into play. A bottleneck is a part of a program that creates performance issues due to a lack of resources or processing time. There are various ways you can recognize these bottlenecks in your code, which will make debugging and fixing them easier once you've identified them. If you are new to computer programming, you may find this article helpful in understanding bottlenecks and how you can identify one in your code. Read on to learn more!

What Is Bottleneck In Computer Science?

What are the causes of bottlenecks?

  • A bottleneck is a point of congestion in a system where traffic or resources is constrained. The term often refers to a choke point in transportation networks. Common causes of bottlenecks include inadequate capacity, insufficient investment in infrastructure, and poor planning.
  • Inadequate capacity is often the primary cause of bottlenecks. When demand for a particular resource or service exceeds the system's capacity to provide it, bottlenecks can occur. This can be due to a lack of physical infrastructure in the available hardware or software.
  • Poor planning can also cause bottlenecks. If the demand for a particular resource or service is not anticipated, the system may not be able to cope when the demand suddenly increases. This can lead to a resource or service shortage and congestion as people or goods try to access the limited supply.

Why does Bottleneck seem to be a problem for Machine Learning?

  • It's clear that without removing Bottlenecks, your machine learning task will take longer than it should, even if you have a very powerful computer. It is also a very important metric for Website Development Course  and programming training neural network models.
  • If you want your model to be trained correctly, you should always keep an eye on the bottleneck metrics. If your bottleneck metrics are always high, your computer is always struggling to complete the task. It would help if you considered buying a more powerful machine or optimizing your code to relieve the pressure on your server or computer.
  • If your bottleneck metrics are not growing, even if you increase the size of your model or the number of iterations it is trained, your computer has enough power to process your task. But if the metrics are growing, your computer cannot handle the load, and you need to optimize your code or buy a more powerful computer.

What are ways to avoid bottlenecks?

Code optimization

  • If you're using a machine learning library, ensure you've optimized it and all of your code before attempting to train a model. Make sure you use efficient algorithms if you use a general-purpose programming language like Python, R, or C++.

Choose your algorithm wisely

  • If you're using gradient descent, SGD, or momentum, your algorithm should be the last thing you worry about.
  • However, if you're using something like ADMM or conjugate gradient, you should be careful about your chosen algorithm.

Use your resources wisely

  • If you're training a model on a single GPU or a single machine, there is a chance that you're going to hit a bottleneck.

Use a different architecture

  • If you're training a model that uses convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, or long short-term memory units, there is a chance that you hit a bottleneck if your architecture is not designed for these tasks.

How can we calculate the Bottleneck?

  • There are two ways to do this. You can either use a quantitative method or a qualitative method. Quantitative methods are better for identifying bottlenecks, but qualitative methods can help you to understand why a given part of your code is slow. The quantitative method is to choose a part of your code with a high execution time.
  • You can do this by selecting a part of code that is executed frequently, is resource-intensive, or has a large data set. Once you have found the Bottleneck, you can calculate the time it takes by timing your code using a performance monitor.
  • You can then compare the execution time of your program with the time it would take if that part of your code were not being executed. If the execution time is higher than without the Bottleneck, you know it is slowing you down.
  • The qualitative method asks yourself two questions: "What part of my code is running slowly?" and "Why is it running slowly?" The first question is purely subjective, but the second question will help you to understand the reasons behind your choice.

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Fixing Bottlenecks

Once you know what is causing the Bottleneck and where it is, you can start thinking about how to fix it. There are many ways to do this. -

Write more efficient code

  • If you have written inefficient code, you can rewrite it more efficiently. This is often the easiest way to fix a bottleneck but is also the most time-consuming. -

Use more efficient algorithms

  • If your code is functioning correctly but is slow, you can always try to use more efficient algorithms. This will often be easier than rewriting your code, particularly if your code is working correctly. -

Use a different architecture

  • If your code is correct but is too slow, you can try using a different one. For example, if you use convolutional neural networks but are too slow, you can try to use recurrent neural networks instead.

Common PC Bottlenecks

Many potential bottlenecks can slow down a PC. Some of the most common include the following:

Slow or overloaded hard drives

  • This is a common bottleneck, especially on older PCs. The hard drive is where all the data and files are stored, so if it is slow or overloaded, it can slow down the entire PC.

Low memory

  • If the PC doesn't have enough memory, it will have to swap data back and forth between the hard drive and memory, slowing things down.

Slow processor

  • A slow processor can also be a bottleneck, as it can't keep up with the demands of the other components.

Inefficient software

  • Bloated or inefficient software can also slow down a PC. This is often the case with older software that hasn't been updated.


As we've seen, the Bottleneck in computer science is simply the part of the computer system that is the slowest at completing a task. It is a part of a program that creates performance issues due to a lack of resources or processing time. Knowing the Bottleneck, you can better optimize your computer and how you use it. We hope you enjoyed this article on what is a bottleneck in computer science! Let us know if you have any questions about it or if you have any other computer science topics you'd like us to write about!

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q.1. What are bottlenecks?

Ans. A bottleneck is a limiting factor that constrains the performance of an system. In business, a bottleneck can refer to any type of constraint that reduces the efficiency of a process. Common examples of business bottlenecks include:

  • Limited production capacity
  • Limited storage space
  • Limited personnel
  • Limited financial resources

Q.2. How can bottlenecks be overcome?

Ans. There are a number of ways to overcome bottlenecks. The most common approach is to invest in additional resources to expand the capacity of the system. For example, if a company is limited by production capacity, it can invest in new machinery or hire additional staff. If a company is limited by storage space, it can rent additional warehouse space.

Q.3. What are the consequences of not addressing bottlenecks?

Ans. If bottlenecks are not addressed, they will continue to constrain the performance of a system. This can lead to lost sales, missed opportunities, and decreased efficiency. In severe cases, bottlenecks can cause a business to grind to a halt.

Q.4. How to identify bottlenecks?

Ans. There are a few key things to keep in mind when trying to identify bottlenecks in a system:

  • Bottlenecks are usually constrained by a single resource. This resource may be physical, like a machine on a production line, or it may be a logical resource, like a server that is overloaded with requests.
  • The bottleneck resource will often be the bottleneck for the entire system. In other words, the system will be able to function at the capacity of the bottleneck resource.
  • Bottlenecks can be identified by looking at bottlenecks in the system. This can be done by analyzing data flows or by observing system behavior.
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