Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Sep 23, 2022, 16:45 IST

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre is one of the most brutal and inhuman incidents in the history of humankind. On April 13, 1919, more than 1000 people were killed, including men, women, and children. Some of them were present there for a peaceful protest, and the remaining ones were there to celebrate the holy festival of Baisakhi at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

It is still capable of sending down the shivers into the body. The victims' family has been affected by the Jallianwala massacre till now. The British Prime Minister has passed a statement and called the brutal event a shameful scare. What motivates the event is that the British soldier under Brigadier Reginald Dyer has opened the fire without any permission and order from the higher authorities.

10 Unknown Facts You Must Know About

  • On April 13, 1919, General Dyer ordered his soldiers to start firing on people gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. The Bagh had only one gate, which was also blocked by the troops. Because of that, people were not able to escape.
  • Ahead of the incident, an English missionary was attacked by the mobs, for which two leaders were arrested on April 9 1919, named Dr. Satyapal and Saifuddin. Only after that, on April 10, 1919, people protested to rescue them, after the Government imposed a law of Martial Act, in which it is mentioned that not more than 4 people can be gathered at the same place.
  • A force of around 50 people was commanded by General Dyer to reach the Jallianwala Bagh and to start firing without any official notice. The fire lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, with approx 1600 rounds of bullets fired at the crowd.
  • An official report identified 379 people dead and about 1,200 injured. But some estimates put the death toll at more than 1,000.
  • There was a disruption in the garden. People are running to save their lives. Many people jump to the well (Martyr Well) in the park. More than 200 bodies were found in the well after the shooting.
  • General Dyer was informed by various British people living in India and Britain about the incident. However, Britishers such as Winston Churchill and H.H Ashiquith were not happy with his actions.
  • Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest against the brutal Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Mahatma Gandhi returned his 'Kaiser-i-Hind' award given by the British Government due to a part in the Boer war in South Africa.
  • General Dyer died in 1927 at the age of 63 in England. In retaliation, during the incident, Sardar Udham Singh, a Ghadar rebel group, 21 years later, shot dead British Lieutenant Governor Michael O'Dwyer at Caxton Hall, London, on March 13, 1940. He was hanged on July 31, 1940.
  • The English Morning Post launched a fundraising campaign for General Dyer and raised 26,000 UKP. In addition, as a thank you to the people who supported his actions, Dyer wrote in the newspaper, "I am proud to think that many women and us agree with my conduct at Amritsar, and I accept the mark.
  • Udham Singh, a part of the Ghadar Party, to take revenge for the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, assassinated Michael O'Dweyer on March 13, 1940.

Some More Facts

  1. In support of Dyer, Author Rudyard Kipling has donated 10 pounds.
  2. From the decision of the Hunter Commission, it is proven that Dyer was indicted and dismissed from the army.
  3. The very last known survivor of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Shingara Singh, passed away on June 29, 2009, at 113.
  4. The people presented there for the Baisakhi festival, including women and children, were not a part of the protest.
  5. It was empty ground with houses built there, closed from three sides.

For more information: Jallianwala Bagh Nationalism In India of Class 10


The Jallianwala Bagh massacre resulted from a public rally to protest the arrest of two ANC leaders and travelers who had gathered to celebrate the Baisakhi. This incident is considered the most shocking incident in human history. With the facts mentioned above and events, Jallianwala Bagh will surely be remembered in Indian history for years to come. If you're a class 10 student, you can find NCERT Solutions for class 10 helpful.

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