Confronting Social Marginalisation

Confronting Marginalisation of Class 8


  1. What is the role of carbohydrates and fats in our body?
  2. List the functions of food.
  3. Name two minerals for which milk is a good source.
  4. Name the foods which make  up a balanced diet.
  5. We are not able to digest cellulose. Yet it is essential for proper functioning of our digestion. why?
  6. What are the sources of vitamin ‘C’ and vitamin ‘D’?
  7. How would you test the presence of starch in the given food?
  8. Which nutrient is the richest source of energy?
  9. Why should we eat a variety of food?
  10. Why is water essential for our life?

Marginalised group's, though powerless, have fought, protested and struggled against being excluded or dominated by others. They have attempted to overcome their situation by adopting a range of strategies in their long history. Religious solace, armed struggle, self improvement and education, economic uplift ­there appears to be no one way of doing things. In all cases, the choice of struggle has depended on the circumstances that the marginalised find themselves in.

There are many ways in which groups and individuals challenge existing inequalities. Adivasis, Daiits, Muslims, women and other marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of a democratic country, they possess equal rights that must be respected. Many among them look up to the Constitution to address their concerns. The constitution of India is something that marginalised groups invoke in the course of their struggles. In the Constitution, Rights are translated into laws to protect groups from continued exploitation. The government's formulate policies to promote the access of these groups for development.

Confronting Social Marginalisation

Invoking Fundamental Rights

The Constitution, lays down the principles that make our society and polity democratic. List of Funaamertai Rights is an important part of the Constitution. These rights are available to Article 14 Indians equally. The marginalised have drawn on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have insisted that the government enforce these laws. In some instances, the government has framed new laws, in keeping with the spirit of the Fundamental Rights.

Article 17 of the Constitution states the untouchabiiity has been abolished this means that no one can henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc. it also means that it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice will not be tolerated by a democratic government. Untouchability is a punishable crime now. Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. This has been used by Dalits to seek equality where it has been denied to them.

Dalits can 'invoke' or draw on a Fundamental Right (or Rights) in situations where they feel that they have been treated badly by some individual or community, or even by the government.

Other minority groups have also drawn on the fundamental Rights section of our Constitution. They have particularly drawn upon the right to freedom of religion and cultural and educational rights.

Thus, by granting different forms of cultural rights, the Constitution tries to ensure cultural justice to such groups. The Constitution does this so that the culture of these groups are neither dominated nor wiped out by the culture of the majority community.

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