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Chemistry formula & Reactions for class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide

Chemistry Formulas

Class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide 

  • Haloalkanes (Alkayl halides): The are halogen derivatives of alkanes. They have general formula ‘CnH2n=1X’, where ‘X’ is F, Cl, Br or I, e.g., methyl chloride (CH3Cl), ethylbromide (C2H5Br), Etc.
  • Haloarenes (Aryl halides): The halogen atom in these halides is directly linked to an aromatic ring carbon e.g.,

aryl

These are also called haloarenes. Thus, benzylic and aryl halides are special types of haloarenes.

  • Peroxide effect or Kharasch effect: When a polar compound is added to unsymmetrical alkenes or alkynes in presence of organic peroxides, e.g., benzoyl peroxide, the negative part of addendum goes to that carbon atom which is maximum substituted, e.g., CH3 – CH

aryls    arylt

  • Elimination reaction: Alkyl halides undergoe  -elimination of hydrogen and halogen atom to form alkenes on being heated with KOH (alc.) or KNH2, e.g..

elimination reaction

The reaction is called dehydrohalo genation. The following is order of reactivity: RCl < RBr < RI

dehydrohalogenation

  • Saytzeff rule: In most of elimination reaction, more alkylated (alkyl substituted) alkene is the major product. The stability of more alkylated alkene is due to its lower energy. Hyperconjugation effect of alkyl group helps in lowering the energy of the product e.g..

saytzeff rule

  • Reactivity of SN1 and SN2 mechanisms: S = substitution, N = Nuclephilic, 2 = Bimolecular, 1 = Unimolecular, Nuclephilic substitution seldom occurs exclusively by one mechanism only. With a given halogen, primary, secondary and tertiary halides show opposite order of reactivity in the two mechanisms.

Chemistry formula sheet for chapter-Alkyl and aryl halide is prepared by expert of Physics Wallah and consist of all-important formula use in Alkyl and aryl halide chapter.

Download free pdf sheet which consist of formulas and important points of Alkyl and aryl halide  from the link given below . 

Chemistry formula & Reactions for class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide

Chemistry formula & Reactions for class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide

Chemistry formula & Reactions for class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide

Chemistry formula & Reactions for class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide

Chemistry formula & Reactions for class 12 chapter- Alkyl and aryl halide

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