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Chemistry formula & reactions for class 12 chapter- Biomolecules

Chemistry Formulas

Class- 12 chapter- Biomolecules 

  • Monosaccharides: These include nonhydrolysable carbohydrates. They are soluble in water. Those containing aldehydic 8. group are called aldose while other containing a ketonic group are called ketoses.
  • Disaccharides: Those carbohydrates, which on hydrolysis yield two molecules of monosaccharides are called disaccharides. They are crystalline, soluble in water and sweet in taste, e.g., cane sugar, maltose, lactose are disaccharides.
  • Oligosaccharides: Those carbohydrates which yield 2 to 10 monosaccharide molecules on hydrolysis are called is are called oligosaccharides, e.g., raffinose on hydrolysis give glucose, fructose and galactose,
  • Polysaccharides: Those carbohydrates, which produce large number of monosaccharide units are called polysaccharides. They are formed by linking together a large number of monosaccharide units through glycosidic linkage. Starch, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose are examples of polysaccharides.
  • Sugars: In general monosaccharides and oligosaccharides are crystalline solids, soluble in water, sweet in taste. There are collectively called sugars, e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.
  • Non-Sugars: The polysaccharides are amorphous, insoluble in water and tasteless are known as non-sugars, e.g., starch, cellulose, etc.
  • Reducing sugars: those carbohydrates which contain free aldehydic or ketonic group and reduce Fehling's solution and Tollens' reagent are called reducing sugars.
  • Non reducing sugars: Those sugars which do not have free aldehydic or ketonic group and do not reduce Fehling's solution and Tollens' reagent are called non-reducing sugars. In disaccharides if the reducing group of monosaccharide, i.e., aldehydic or ketonic groups are bonded, they are non-reducing sugars e.g., sucrose.
  • Mutarotation: When glucose was crystallised from a concentrated solution at 30°C, it gave α-form of glucose, melting point 146°C [α]D = +111° is specific rotation. On the other hand β-glucose has melting point 150°C and [α]D= +19.2° is obtained on crystallisation of glucose from a hot saturated aqueous solution at a temperature above 98°C. The two forms of glucose are called anomers and differ from each other in orientation of OH group at C-1. If either of the two forms is dissolved in water and allowed to stand, the specific rotation of a solution changes slowly and reaches a constant value at +52.5°.
  • Proteins: proteins are complex polyamides formed from amino acids. They are essential for proper growth and maintenance of body. They have many peptide bond. Therefore, proteins are long polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds (polypeptides).

Chemistry formula sheet for chapter-Biomolecules  is prepared by expert of Physics Wallah and consist of all-important formula use in Biomolecules chapter. Do find the detail NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry prepared by expert faculty of Physics Wallah.

Download free pdf sheet which consist of formulas and important points of Biomolecules  from the link given below . 

Chemistry formula & reactions for class 12 chapter- Biomolecules

Chemistry formula & reactions for class 12 chapter- Biomolecules

Chemistry formula & reactions for class 12 chapter- Biomolecules

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