Chemistry formula for class 12 chapter- chemistry in everyday life
Class 12 chapter- chemistry in everyday life
Medicines or Drugs
Chemical substances used for treatment of diseases and for reducing suffering from pain are called medicines or drugs.
The treatment of diseases due to bacterial invasion by chemical compounds which destroy the micro-organism without affecting the tissues of the host is known as Chemotherapy.
The chemicals so used for the cure are called chemotherapeutic agents. Some of the medicinal compounds are described below :
Antipyretics: Chemical substances which are used to bring down the body temperature in high fevers are called antipyretics. Aspirin, paracetamol, analgin and phenacetin are some of the common antipyretics.
Analgesics: Chemical substances used for relieving pain are called analgesics. Aspirin and analgin act both as antipyretics and analgesics. They give immediate relief from pain and fever. e.g. Novalgin is the most widely used analgesic.
Antiseptics: Chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro organisms or kill them but are not harmful to the living human tissues are called antiseptics. Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues. These are applied to wounds. ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Some of the compounds used as antiseptics are exemplified below:
Dettol, a mixture of chloroxylenol (also known as parachlorometaxylenol) and terpeneol, is a commonly used antiseptic for wounds, cuts, diseased skin surfaces, etc.
Bithional is added to soaps to impart them antiseptic properties. Such soaps are used to reduce odour due to bacterial action on skin surface.
Iodine is also used as an antiseptic in the form of tincture of iodine i.e., a 2-3% solution of iodine in alcohol-water.
Hydrogen peroxide solution also has strong antiseptic properties
Chemical substances which kill micro organisms or stop their growth but are harmful to human tissue are called disinfectants. They are used to disinfect floors, toilets, etc. for example phenol(1%), sulphur dioxide, etc.
These are substance which are used for the treatment of stress and mental diseases. These effect the central nervous system and induce sleep to the patients. The tranquillizers are also called psycho-therapeutic drugs. Barbituric acid and its derivatives such as luminal, veronal and seconal are most commonly used tranquillizers. These derivatives of barbituric acid are known as barbiturates.
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