Chlorate is an important chemical compound with various applications in both industry and chemistry. The ion chlorate has the molecular formula ClO3−. Chlorates are salts of chloric acid. The Roman numeral in parentheses, e.g. chlorate(VII), indicates a particular chlorine oxyanion. Adding chlorine to metal hydroxides, such as KOH, can prepare metal chlorates.
In this case, the chlorine atom has an oxidation state of +5 and has the formula ClO3−. Thus, we can refer to chlorate as a chemical compound containing an anion, as well as a salt of chloric acid. Further, when we use a Roman number with chlorates in parentheses, such as chlorate (VII), it is referring to a specific chlorine oxyanion.
Because they are powerful oxidizers, they should not be combined with organics or easily oxidized materials. Also, chlorates combined with virtually any combustible material (sawdust, sugar, organic solvents, charcoal, metals, etc.) can deflagrate. Although chlorates were once widely used in pyrotechnics because of their stability, their use has fallen since then. Since then, most pyrotechnic applications that use chlorates are replaced by more stable perchlorates.
Chlorate Formula Structure
The chlorate ion, represented as ClO3−, is composed of a chlorine atom (Cl) bonded to three oxygen atoms (O). The three oxygen atoms are arranged in a trigonal planar fashion, creating a symmetrical structure. The chlorine atom is at the centre, forming covalent bonds with the three oxygen atoms. The Chlorine atom has an oxidation state of +5 in the Chlorate Formula. It can also refer to compounds that contain this formula, which are known as salts of chloric acid. When followed by a Roman numeral in parentheses, like Chlorate (VII), the term “Chlorate” denotes an oxyanion of chlorine. According to the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, Chlorate anions have trigonal pyramidal structures. Due to their strong oxidizing properties, it is important to keep inorganic and easily oxidized materials away from Chlorates. These salts can easily ignite combustible materials such as sugar, sawdust, charcoal, organic solvents, and metals. In the past, Chlorates were commonly used in pyrotechnics but have now been replaced by Perchlorates due to their unstable nature.
Preparation of Chlorates
As an industrial process, sodium chlorate is prepared by synthesis from aqueous sodium chloride (brine) instead of chlorine gas.
As the electrolysis equipment permits mixing of the chlorine and sodium hydroxide, the disappropriation reaction occurs. Furthermore, the electrical power used for electrolysis is used to heat the reactants to 50-70°C.
Occurrence of Chlorates
The occurrence of natural chlorate deposits around the world, with relatively high concentrations in arid and hyper-arid regions, can be measured in rainfall samples with chlorate amounts similar to perchlorate.
As part of the chlorine biogeochemistry cycle, we suspect that perchlorate and chlorate share a common natural formation mechanism. Furthermore, from a microbial perspective, the presence of natural chlorate can also explain why various microorganisms are capable of reducing chlorate to chloride.
In addition, chlorate reduction may have been an ancient phenomenon, since all perchlorate-reducing bacteria use chlorate as an electron acceptor.
Chlorate Formula and Valency
The valency of the chlorate ion ClO3− is determined by the number of electrons it can gain or lose when forming chemical bonds. In this case, the chlorine atom has a valency of 1, while each of the three oxygen atoms has a valency of 2. Therefore, the total valency of the chlorate ion is -1, indicating that it has an extra electron, making it an anion.
Chlorate Formula Charge
The chlorate ion ClO3− carries a charge of -1 due to its extra electron. This charge is essential in ionic compounds and reactions, where the chlorate ion can combine with positively charged cations to form stable compounds.
Chlorate Formula Molecular Composition
The molecular composition of the chlorate ion is ClO3−. It consists of one chlorine atom, denoted by the symbol Cl, and three oxygen atoms, denoted by the symbol O. The subscript 3 in ClO3− indicates three oxygen atoms in the ion.
Chlorate Formula Lewis Structure
A Lewis structure is a visual representation of the electron arrangement in a molecule or ion. In the Lewis structure of the chlorate ion ClO3−, the chlorine atom is in the centre, with a single bond to each of the three oxygen atoms. Each oxygen atom also has two lone pairs of electrons. This Lewis structure clearly shows the distribution of electrons in the ion. Since chlorine atoms are hypervalent and all Cl-O bonds are the same length, a Lewis structure cannot adequately describe the Chlorate Formula ion. Multi-resonance structures are often considered hybrids.
Chlorate Formula of Acid
Chlorates are often involved in the formation of acids. For example, when chloric acid ClO3− is formed, it results from the dissociation of the chlorate ion ClO3− in water. Chloric acid is a strong acid and is used in various chemical processes and industrial applications.
Chlorate Formula Anion
The chlorate ion ClO3− is classified as an anion. Anions are negatively charged ions that have gained electrons during chemical reactions. The chlorate ion carries a charge of -1, as it has an extra electron, and it is an essential component of many compounds and reactions in chemistry.
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Chlorate Formula FAQs
Q1. What is the name of ClO3?
Ans. ClO3 is called the "chlorate ion." It is an anion composed of one chlorine atom (Cl) and three oxygen atoms (O), and it carries a charge of -1.
Q2. How do you write the chlorate formula?
Ans. The formula for the chlorate ion is written as ClO3. It consists of the chemical symbol for chlorine (Cl) and three oxygen atoms (O), all bonded together, with a negative charge of -1.
Q3. Is chlorate a CI or Cl?
Ans. Chlorate is represented by the chemical symbol "Cl." The symbol "CI" does not represent any known chemical species.
Q4. What is the common name for chlorate?
Ans. The common name for the chlorate ion ClO3 is simply "chlorate." Chlorate compounds are widely used in various industrial and chemical applications.