Properties of Matter Formula – Definition, Examples

Anything that has mass and takes up space is considered matter in physics and chemistry. It is the material that underlies everything in the physical universe that we can see, touch, and otherwise interact with.

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Defintion And Formula Of Properties of Matter 

When we talk about the qualities and traits that help define and separate various substances, we are talking about the properties of matter formula. These attributes are measurable and observable, and they offer crucial details regarding the interactions and behaviour of matter.

Here we learn about all properties of matter. Which starts from the state of matter.

State of Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space is considered matter in physics and chemistry. It is the material that underlies everything in the physical universe that we can see, touch, and otherwise interact with. Depending on the temperature and pressure it is exposed to, matter can exist in a variety of states, including solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

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Atoms are the fundamental building units of all matter and are the smallest units that make up matter. Atoms can join together to form molecules, and these molecules can then join together to form a variety of materials and substances.

There are four states of matter:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma, and

There is also three types of properties of matter. Which are listed here:

  • Physical properties of matter
  • Chemical properties of matter
  • Intensive and extensive properties of matter

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Physical properties of matter

Physical features of a substance are traits that may be seen or measured without affecting the substance’s chemical makeup. These characteristics are crucial for differentiating and categorising various materials since they define how matter behaves under various circumstances. Here are a few typical characteristics of matter:

  • Mass: The amount of matter in an object is referred to as its mass and is typically measured in grammes or kilogrammes.
  • Volume: Volume is the measure of how much space an object or substance takes up, and it is commonly expressed in cubic centimetres (cm3) or litres (L).
  • Density: Density is a substance’s mass per unit volume and determines how dense or light a substance is. Density is determined by dividing mass by volume 


  • Colour: An object’s colour is a visual characteristic that arises from how it interacts with light. To give them distinct colours, various materials absorb and reflect light in different ways.
  • Texture: Texture refers to the physical properties of a material’s surface, such as its smoothness, roughness, softness, or hardness.
  • Melting point: The melting point is the temperature at which a substance transitions from a solid to a liquid state.
  • Temperature: The temperature at which a liquid substance turns into a gas is known as the boiling point.
  • State of Matter: Depending on the temperature and pressure, matter can be in the solid, liquid, gas, or plasma states.
  • Solubility: A substance’s solubility refers to its capacity to dissolve in a certain solvent and produce a homogenous mixture (solution).
  • Conductivity: A material’s capacity to conduct heat or electricity is referred to as conductivity.



R = resistance

l = distance

A = area of the sample

= specific resistance

  • Malleability: The ability of a material to distort or shape itself without breaking when put under pressure or rolled is known as malleability.
  • Ductility: The ability of a substance to be pulled into a thin wire without breaking is known as ductility.
  • Hardness: A material’s resistance to scuffing, indentation, or distortion is measured by its hardness.
  • Opacity/ transparency: What percentage of light can flow through a material is determined by its transparency or opacity. While opaque materials block light, transparent materials let it through.
  • Lustre: Lustre is the term used to describe the way light reflects off a material’s surface, giving it a glossy, matte, or metallic appearance.

These are only a few illustrations of physical attributes; the whole range can be found by examining the particular traits of the substance under study.

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Chemical properties of matter

A substance’s behaviour or changes when it interacts with other substances or goes through chemical reactions are described by the chemical characteristics of matter. Chemical qualities are different from physical attributes in that they involve changing one substance into another and are only visible after a chemical shift has taken place. A few typical chemical characteristics of matter are listed below:

  • Reactivity: Reactivity is the term used to describe a substance’s capacity to engage in chemical reactions with other chemicals that produce new molecules. While some substances are inert or unreactive, others are very reactive.
  • Combustability: When a substance is subjected to a flame or heat, it has the ability to burn or ignite, frequently creating light and heat in the process.
  • Oxidation: Oxidation is a chemical reaction that occurs when an object reacts with oxygen to create oxides. Oxidation is frequently seen by the rusting of iron.
  • Corrosion: The progressive deterioration or destruction of materials—typically metals—caused by chemical interactions with their surroundings is known as corrosion.
  • Acidity/Basicity (pH): A substance’s acidity or basicity is determined by its capacity to release hydrogen ions (making it acidic) or hydroxide ions (making it basic) in a solution.
  • Toxicity: Toxic chemical characteristics of some substances make them potentially hazardous or harmful to living things.
  • Stability: Under certain circumstances, a substance’s ability to withstand going through chemical changes or decomposing is referred to as its stability.
  • Flammability: The capacity of a substance to ignite and burn in the presence of oxygen is referred to as flammability.
  • Chemical Inertness: Some compounds are chemically inert, which means that under typical circumstances, they do not readily react with other substances.
  • Hygroscopicity: Materials with this attribute can take in moisture from their surroundings.
  • Radioactivity: Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation caused by the disintegration of unstable atomic nuclei, which is a property of some materials.



A = total activity

N = number of articles

T = time

  • Biodegradability: Materials that are biodegradable can naturally be converted into simpler molecules by biological processes, usually by microorganisms.
  • Compatibility: The ability of different chemicals to mix or react with one another without causing unfavourable or dangerous effects is referred to as compatibility.

Chemical properties play a crucial role in understanding the behavior and interactions of substances in various chemical processes, environmental reactions, and biological systems. They are essential for designing and developing new materials, pharmaceuticals, and chemical technologies.

Intensive and Extensive Properties of Matter

Physical characteristics that are used to define matter fall into two categories: intensive and extensive. Without regard to the quantity or size of the sample, these qualities assist in characterising and differentiating substances based on their behaviour and interactions. Here’s a quick breakdown of each:

Intensive property of matter

Intensive properties are those that don’t change depending on how much or what size of the material is being viewed. In other words, these characteristics are unaffected by the amount of the material. They are frequently used to identify and categorise substances since they are fundamental to the character of the material. The following are some instances of intense properties:

  • Density
  • Temperature
  • Color
  • Boiling Point
  • Melting point

Extensive property of matter

The volume or size of the substance being seen affects the extensive properties, on the other hand. These characteristics alter as the substance’s volume changes. Extensive properties are additive, which means that they may be added together for several components of a substance to produce the overall value for the entire sample. Comprehensive properties include, among others:

  • Mass
  • Volume
  • Energy

Properties of Matter Formula FAQs

hat variations of matter are there?

The four basic states of matter are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Gases don't have a defined shape or volume, whereas solids do. Plasma is an ionised gas with free-moving charged particles. Liquids have a fixed volume but take the shape of their container.

How do physical and chemical qualities of matter differ from one another?

Without affecting the substance's chemical makeup, a substance's physical attributes can be seen or quantified. The behaviour of a material in its interactions with other substances, which result in chemical alterations and the formation of new compounds, is described by its chemical characteristics.

How is density calculated?

Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume. The formula for density is: Density = Mass / Volume.

How do mass and weight differ from one another?

Weight is the force of gravity acting on an object and is location-dependent, whereas mass is the amount of matter that makes up an object and is constant regardless of where it is.

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