What is the Full Form of PCR

Full Forms

Full form of PCR

A full form of PCR is Polymerase Chain Reaction. It is a commonly used method in molecular biology and biotechnology laboratories for producing millions of a small portion of DNA. This process was started in 1983 by Kary Mullis, an American biologist. We have provided the article to find out everything about the PCR method. Read the full article to know more.

The article discusses PCR, its full form, and its requirements with a detailed description of the steps involved in PCR strategies, PCR types, and its role in the field of Life Science. Scroll down to the full article for a detailed description of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Full form of PCR

In molecular biology, it is a method used to grow one copy of DNА to produce millions of DNА copies. This technique is widely used in the DNА fingerprint system to improve DNА ratings collected in the investigation area. This step helps to identify the mutation that causes genetic problems. Using the РСR method, any gene can be developed and tested.

Components of PCR

DNA Template: DNA molecules, like complete DNA from human cells. A specific region of DNA extracted from such a compound provided the nucleotide sequence surrounding the known DNA sequence. The primer is designed to initiate DNA synthesis in the desired location.

Oligonucleotide Primers: This primer is usually a chemical-derived oligonucleotide containing 15 to 20 DNA bases. Two primers initiate DNA synthesis in the opposite areas of the corresponding DNA strand. Primers depend on primer length, melting point (Tm), specification, GC content, and primer sequence.

DNA Polymerase: Taq polymerase is a DNA polymerase found in Thermus aquaticus stable at 95 ° C. Taq polymerase facilitates the stimulation, specification, and automation of the PCR process.

Deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate: Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) contain four basic nucleotides — dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP — as building blocks of new DNA strands.

Buffer System: PCR buffer contains Magnesium chloride, which provides Mg divalent cations needed as a cofactor. The buffer provides a suitable chemical environment for DNA polymerase activity.

Steps Involved in PCR Technique

PCR is a successful method developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s. It is known as a thermocycler. PCR can synthesize new DNA strands associated with template strands with DNA polymerase. Because DNA polymerase can also add a nucleotide to the existing 3'-OH group, it requires a primer to add the original nucleotide. The main components of the PCR are Template, Taq polymerase, dNTPs, Buffer with Mg2 +, and Sterile Water.

The steps involved in PCR technique are:

  • Denaturation occurs at 95°C temperature.
  • Annealing (50-56°C)
  • Extension (72°C)

The reaction begins by heating the DNA template at high temperatures (e.g., 95 °C) and then splitting it into two strands. The temperature then decreases to allow the primers to be matched to their corresponding sequence of template strands. DNA polymerase then uses primers to synthesize new fibers corresponding to each template.

Thus, two DNA molecules are grouped in a template molecule in one amplification cycle. The method can be repeated several times, with a double increase in DNA molecules caused by each replication cycle. A single DNA molecule enlarged by 30 cycles of replication, for example, can produce up to 230 (about one billion) reproductive molecules.

Types of PCR

  • Real-Time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR)
  • Reverse-Transcriptase (RT-PCR)
  • Multiplex PCR
  • Nested PCR
  • Hot Start PCR
  • Arbitrary Primed PCR
  • Touchdown PCR
  • Inverse PCR
  • Colony PCR

Applications of PCR

  • Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used as a primary diagnostic for COVID-19.
  • PCR is used to identify genetic mutations and carriers of diabetes, obesity, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic, and congenital disorders.
  • PCR can be used as a biomarker to diagnose several bacterial and viral infections.
  • PCR is used in the marking techniques of DNA cells such as AFLP and RAPD and helps in identifying and classifying plant viruses and producing a set of specific DNA fragments.
  • DNA fingerprinting is the primary use of PCR in forensic science.
  • In molecular biology, the PCR method synthesizes a gene into specific DNA sequences.
  • Genotyping uses PCR to detect and characterize the normal and mutant alleles.

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