. __________ are also known as amphibians of the plant kingdom
d. None of the above
Correct option is : B
Bryophytes are also called as amphibians of the plant kingdom because these plants live in soil but they require water for asexual reproduction. They were non-vascular plants. Asexual reproduction is the main system of reproduction in bryophytes. It occurs through the product of spores. Though bryophytes live on the land, they need water for fertilization. The sperms of bryophytes swim through water to the eggs with the support of their flagella. Accordingly, bryophytes are called amphibians of the factory area. They include Mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
Thallophyta are substantially non-motile primitive plant organisms which expose simple body forms. These forms mostly include Algae, fungi, etc. These plant bodies don't contain roots, stems and leaves. They're substantially plant in wet and wettest places and are substantially autotrophic in nature. Lichens, mosses are also included in thallophytes.
Pteridophytes are vascular plants which contain roots, leaves and stems. These are also known as cryptograms as they don’t produce flowers and seeds. They contain vascular systems (xylem and phloem). These plants substantially include ferns, clubmosses, spike mosses, etc and reproduce by means of spores.