. What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth century India

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Ans: Public libraries were set up from the early twentieth century, expanding access to books. These libraries were located mostly in cities and towns and at times in prosperous villages. For rich local patrons, setting up a library was a way of acquiring prestige.

From the late nineteenth century, issues of caste discrimination were written about in many printed tracts and essays.

Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements, wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri (1871). In the twentieth century, B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker in Madras (better known as Periyar) wrote powerfully on caste, and their writings were read by people all over India. Local protest movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts, criticising ancient scriptures and envisioning a new and just future.


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