- Question Answer
- Assertion Electromagnetic waves with frequencies more than the critical frequency of ionosphere cannot be used for communication using sky wave propag
. Assertion Electromagnetic waves with frequencies more than the critical frequency of ionosphere cannot be used for communication using sky wave propag
Reason The refractive index of the ionosphere becomes very high for frequencies higher than the critical frequency.
Solution :The sky waves are the radiowaves of frequency range between 2 MHz to 30 MHz. The ionosphere reflects these radiowaves back to earth during their propagation thorugh atmosphere.
The refractive index of ionosphere is less than its free space value. That is, it behaves as a rarer medium. Therefore, the wave will turn away from the normal when it enters the ionosphere. As we go deep into the ionosphere (electron density N is large), the refractive index keeps on decreasing. The refraction or bending of the beam will continue till it reaches critical angle after which it will be reflected back. If the frequency is too high, then after a certain value, the electron density N may never be so high as to produce enough bending for attainment of critical angle or condition of reflection. This is called critical frequency. For frequencies higher than this value, the refractive index of the ionosphere becomes very high, so they cross the ionosphere and do not return back to the earth.
Hence, the option (a) is true