. Briefly discuss how democracy evolved through popular struggles

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Ans: i. Democracy evolved through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. But that would be an exception

ii. Defining moments of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power. These moments come when the country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy

iii. Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilization. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute. The resolution has to come from outside, from the people

iv. These conflicts and mobilizations are based on new political organization. True there is an element of spontaneity in all such historic moments. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organized politics. These include political parties, pressure groups and movement groups

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