. Define the term nation? Mention the features of nationalism in Europe in the early phase of eighteenth century


Best Answer

“A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore, a large-scale solidarity.”

Features of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s:

(i) The sense of unity was developed through cultural movement bearing nationalist sentiment. Artists and poets focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. They wanted to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of nation.

(ii)  Nationalist movements became aggressive because monarchy did not accept their demands of forming republics with political rights and freedom of speech to all people as in Germany, France  and Italy.

 (iii) Nationalism in Europe after the 1830s was neither exclusive nor chauvinistic. Revolutionaries did not fight for their independence alone or against the despotism of their rulers only. They did not want their nation to dominate other nations. They were in fact inspired by the aim of fighting against despotism everywhere.

 (iv) Diplomatic alliances were formed and several tactics resorted to establish republics but under monarchy, as it was difficult to bring democracy in its full shape in the presence of conservatism pervaded all over Europe.

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