. Discuss Nitration of Benzene
Benzene reacts slowly with hot concentrated nitric acid to yield nitrobenzene. The reaction is much faster if it is carried out by heating benzene with a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
In step 1 nitric acid acts as a base and accepts a proton from the stronger acid, sulfuric acid. In step 2 the protonated nitric acid dissociates and produces a nitronium ion. In step 3, the nitronium ion reacts with benzene by attacking the cloud and forming an arenium ion.