. Discuss Nitration of Benzene


Best Answer

Benzene reacts slowly with hot concentrated nitric acid to yield nitrobenzene. The reaction is much faster if it is carried out by heating benzene with a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.

hydro

nitro

In step 1 nitric acid acts as a base and accepts a proton from the stronger acid, sulfuric acid. In step 2 the protonated nitric acid dissociates and produces a nitronium ion. In step 3, the nitronium ion reacts with benzene by attacking the  cloud and forming an arenium ion.

 

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