. Explain the term Parthenogenesis
It is a specialized mode of sexual reproduction in which egg develops without fertilization. It is of two types: complete (eg. rotifers and certain wasps) – [only form of reproduction] and incomplete [eg. bees, ants, wasps, aphids, cypris etc] where it alternates between cyclic and non-cyclic.
In complete parthenogenesis there is no biparental sexual reproduction. There are no males and therefore such individuals are represented by females only. Whereas incomplete parthenogenesis involves both sexual reproduction and parthenogenesis.