. How do Mendel experiments show that the
(a) traits may be dominant or recessive,
(b) traits are inherited independently
Ans. Mendel's experiments show that the
(a) Traits may be dominant or recessive. When Mendel cross-bred plants of two different traits of character, a tall pea plant (TI) and a dwarf pea plant (tt) to get a progeny (F1 generation), all F1 plants were tall. Only the dominant trait was visible in this generation. But when plants of F1 generation were selfbred then the two traits of character got separated in the plants of F2 generation. All plants obtained in the F2 generation were not tall. One-fourth of the F 2 plants were short. Appearance of tall characters in both the F1 and F2 generations shows that it is a dotrifnant character. Whereas the absence of dwarf character in F1 generation and its reappearance in F2 generation shows dwarfness is the recessive character
(b) Traits are inherited independently. Mendel cross-bred pea plants showing two different characterstics, rather than just one. When he cross-bred pea plants of round green seeds with wrinkled yellow seeds, he got F1 generation with all such seeds which were yellow and round character of seeds were dominant traits in the pea plant. On selfing of F1 progency, different types of F2 progency were obtained.
F2 progency along with their ratios obtained in F2 generations:
So traits of two different characters were inherited independent of each other and made new combination characterstics independent of their previous combinations