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Ans. Grains may be lost in the pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest stages. The factors can be
1) Biotic — insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria
2) Abiotic — Inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage.
These factors cause degradation in quality, loss in weight, poor germinability, discolouration of produce, all leading to poor marketability of the product.