. Illustrate the following name reactions giving suitable example in each case
(a) Illustrate the following name reactions giving suitable example in each case:
(i) Clemmensen reduction
(ii) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction
(b) How are the following conversions carried out?
(i) Ethylcyanide to ethanoic acid
(ii) Butan-1-ol to butanoic acid
(iii) Benzoic acid to m-bromobenzoic acid
(a) Illustrate the following reactions giving a suitable example for each:
(i) Cross aldol condensation
(b) Give simple tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds
(i) Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one
(ii) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone
(iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid
(a) (i) The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc-amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid. The reaction is known as Clemmensen reduction
(ii) Carboxylic acids having an -hydrogen are halogenated at the -position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give -halocarboxylic acids. This reaction is called Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky reaction.