. Stable transformation of plants is reliably obtained by-
(a) Agrobacterium plasmid integration
(d) Silicon carbide whisker
(a) The tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumifaciens has now been modified into a cloning vector which is no more pathogenic to the plants but is still able to use the mechanisms to deliver genes of our interest into a variety of plants and considered as a stable transformer.