Autosomes: In a eukaryotic cell, autosomes are chromosomes separate from the sex chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are the sex chromosomes in humans. Except for the sex chromosomes, all chromosomes are autosomes.
In humans, there are 22 homologous pairs of autosomes. Each autosome contains a number of genes, each of which performs a specific function. In eukaryotic organisms, distinct cell types express diverse combinations of genes that enable cellular functioning.
Allosomes: An allosome is a sex chromosome that differs from an autosome in size, shape, and behaviour. Allosomes are found in only one pair in humans. These chromosomes include genes that define an organism's biological sex.
These chromosomes are arranged in pairs. During meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes form a pair, which aids in sex determination.
Autosomes are all chromosomes that serve a purpose other than determining a person's gender. Allosomes are genes that have a role in determining sex.