. What is tissue culture and what are the Components of Tissue Culture
The plant part used in culture is known as explant.
It may be liquid, semisolid or solid. The latter two have agar or gelatine.
It contains mineral Vitamins, 2 – 4%. Sucrose, aminoacid glycine and growth regulators (or banana pulp/Coconut milk/yeast extract).
Containers, nutrients medium and instruments are autoclaved (at 1200C) for 15 – 30 minutes. Explant is disinfected with methiolate, clorax water or dilute hypochlorite. Inoculation is carried out in inoculation chamber disinfected with ultra-violet rays.
Shoot Tip Culture
Apical meristem of one or two young leaves is removed, sterilized and reared in culture to obtain virus free plants.
Multiple shoot culture
Shoot tip with 1 – 4 leaf primordia is sterlised and placed on a culture medium having NAA. At intervals of 4- 6 weeks the shoots tip is cut and sub cultured. The tissue is transferred to medium with low salt and no NAA for obtaining plantlet. The technique is useful in obtaining a number of pathogen free copies of rare or sterile plant.
It is useful in growing plants from dormant seeds. Their embryos are removed and allowed to grow on culture medium.
Somatic Embryogenesis (Embryoid culture)
Separated cells from callus are raised. They are embroids. Medium rich in ammonium salts with little auxin favour embroid formation. Each embroid grows to produce a new plant.
Haploid or Pollen Grain Culture
Young anthers of sterilized unopened floaral bud are removed and dropped over culture medium. A number of haploid embroids are formed after 4 – 6 weeks. Each such embroid can form a haploid plant. Application of colchicines to young embroid forms completely homozygous diploid plant.