. Write Cartesian Sign Convention of Refraction through Spherical Surfaces

Best Answer

Similar to refraction at plane surfaces, light refracts across curved boundaries following the same two laws of refraction as in plane surfaces. We, however, will deal with refraction of paraxial rays mostly.

Cartesian Sign Convention

i. The line joining the object and the centre is taken as the X-axis, with the point of intersection of the axis and the spherical surface as the origin.

ii. The +ve direction of X-axis is generally chosen along the direction of the incident rays.  

iii. The quantities u, v and R denote the x-coordinates of the object, image and the centre respectively, though we commonly call them object distance, image distance and radius respectively.

iv. If lengths perpendicular to the X-axis are needed, then we use the Y-axis, usually taking the upwards +ve.


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