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1. What is the average cell cycle span for a mammalian cell?
Sol. 24 hours.
2. Distinguish cytokinesis from karyokinesis.
Sol. Differences between cytokinesis and karyokinesis are:
3. Describe the events taking place during interphase.
Sol. The interphase, though called the resting phase, is metabolically quite active. It is the time during which the cell prepares itself for division by undergoing both cell growth and DNA replication in an orderly manner. The interphase is further divided into three phases:
• G1 (Gap 1) phase
• S (Synthesis) phase
• G2 (Gap 2) phase
G1 phase corresponds to the interval between mitosis of previous cell cycle and initiation of DNA replication. During G1 phase the cell is metabolically active and grows continuously but does not replicate its DNA S or synthesis phase marks the period during which DNA synthesis or replication takes place. During this time the amount of DNA doubles per cell. In animal cells, during the S phase, DNA replication occurs in the nucleus, and the centriole duplicates in the cytoplasm. During the G2 phase synthesis of DNA stops while cell growth continues with synthesis of protein and RNA in preparation for mitosis.
4. What is G0 (quiescent phase) of cell cycle?
Sol. G0 phase is the phase of inactivation of cell cycle due to non-availability of mitogens and energy rich compounds. Cells in this stage remain metabolically active but no longer proliferate i.e., do not grow or differentiate unless called on to do so depending on the requirement of the organism. E.g., Nerve and heart cells of chordates are in permanent G0 phase.
5. Why is mitosis called equational division?
Sol. Mitosis is a type of cell division in which chromosomes replicate and become equally distributed in two daughter nuclei so that the daughter cells come to have the same number and type of chromosomes as present in parent cell. So mitosis is called as equational division.
6. Name the stage of cell cycle at which each one of the following events occur:
(i) Chromosomes are moved to spindle equator.
(ii) Centromere splits and chromatids
(iii) Pairing between homologous chromo-somes takes place.
(iv) Crossing over between homologous chromosomes takes place.
(iii) Zygotene of prophase I of meiosis 1
(iv) Pachytene of prophase I of meiosis I
7. Describe the following:
Draw a diagram to illustrate your answer.
Sol. (a) Synapsis: During zygotene of prophase I stage homologou s chromosomes start pairing together and this process of association is called synapsis. Electron micrographs of this stage indicate that chromosome synapsis is accompanied by the formation of complex structure called synaptonemal complex.
(b) Bivalent: The complex formed by a pair of synapsed homologous chromosomes is called a bivalent or a tetrad i.e., 4 chromatids or a pair of chromosomes.
(c) Chiasmata: The beginning of diplotene is recognized by the dissolution of the synaptonemal complex and the tendency of the synapsed homologous chromosomes of the bivalents to separate from each other except at the sites of crossovers. These points of attachment (X-shaped structures) between the homologous chromosomes are called chiasmata.
8. How does cytokinesis in plant cells differ from that in animal cells?
Sol. Plant cytokinesis and animal cytokinesis differ in following respects:
9. Find examples where the four daughter cells from meiosis are equal in size and where they are found unequal in size.
Sol. During formation of male gametes (i.e., spermatozoa) in a typical mammal (i.e., human being), the four daughter cells formed from meiosis are equal in size. On the other hand, during formation of female gamete (i.e., ovum) in a typical mammal (i.e., human being), the four daughter cells are unequal in size.
10. Can there be DNA replication without cell division?
Sol. Yes. Endomitosis is the multiplication of chromosomes present in a set in nucleus without karyokinesis and cytokinesis result-ing in numerous copies within each cell. It is of 2 types.
Polyteny: Here chromosomes divide and redivide without separation of chromatids so that such chromosomes become multistranded with many copies of DNA. Such polytene (many stranded) chromosomes remain in permanent prophase stage and do not undergo cell cycle e.g., polytene (salivary glands) chromosome of Drosophila has 512- 1024 chromatids. Here number of sets of chromosomes does not change.
Polyploidy (endoduplication) : Here all chromosomes in a set divide and its chromatids separate but nucleus does not divide. This results in an increase in number of sets of chromosomes in the nucleus (4x, 8x….). This increase in sets of chromosomes is called polyploidy. It can be induced by colchicine and granosan. These chromosomes are normal and undergo cell cycle.
11. List the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
12. Distinguish anaphase of mitosis from anaphase I of meiosis.
Sol. Anaphase of mitosis : It is the phase of shortest duration. APC (anaphase promoting complex) develops. It degenerates proteins -binding the two chromatids in the region of centromere. As a result, the centromere of each chromosome divides. This converts the two chromatids into daughter chromosomes each being attached to the spindle pole of its side by independent chromosomal fibre. The chromosomes move towards the spindle poles with the centromeres projecting towards the poles and the limbs trailing behind. There is corresponding shortening of chromosome fibres. The two pole-ward moving chromosomes of each type remain attached to each other by interzonal fibres. Ultimately, two groups of chromosomes come to lie at the spindle poles.
Anaphase I of meiosis : Chiasmata disappear completely and the homologous chromosomes separate. The process is called disjunction. The separated chromosomes (univalents) show divergent chromatids and are called dyads. They move towards the spindle poles and ultimately form two groups of haploid chromosomes.
13. What is the significance of meiosis?
Sol. The significance of meiosis is given below:
(i) Formation of gametes – Meiosis forms gametes that are essential for sexual reproduction.
(ii) Genetic information – It switches on the genetic information for the development of gametes or gametophytes and switches off the sporophytic information. ‘
(iii) Maintenance of chromosome number – Meiosis maintains the fixed number of chromosomes in sexually reproducing organisms by halving the same. It is essential since the chromosome number becomes double after fertilisation.
(iv) Assortment of chromosomes – In meiosis paternal and maternal chromosomes assort independently. It causes reshuffling of chromosomes and the traits controlled by them. The variations help the breeders in improving the races of useful plants and animals.
(v) Crossing over – It introduces new combination of traits or variations.
(vi) Mutations – Chromosomal and genomic mutations can take place by irregularities of meiotic divisions. Some of these mutations are useful to the organism and are perpetuated by natural selection.
(vii) Evidence of basic relationship of organisms – Details of meiosis are essentially similar in the majority of organisms showing their basic similarity and relationship.
14. Discuss with your teacher about
(i) haploid insects and lower plants where cell division occurs, and
(ii)some haploid cells in higher plants where cell division does not occur.
Sol. (i) Cell division occurs in haploid insect, such as drones of honey bee and lower plant like gametophyte of algae, bryophytes, and pteridophytes.
(ii) Synergids and antipodals in embryo sac of ovule are haploid cells where cell division does not occur.
15. Can there be mitosis without DNA replication in ’S’ phase?
Sol. No there cannot be any mitotic division without-DNA replication in ‘S’ phase.
16. Analyse the events during every stage of ceil cycle and notice how the following two parameters change.
(i) number of chromosomes (N) per cell
(ii) amount of DNA content (C) per cell
Sol. Number of chromosomes and amount of DNA change during S-phase and anaphase of cell cycle. S or synthesis phase marks the period during which DNA synthesis or replication takes place. During this time the amount of DNA per cell doubles. If the initial amount of DNA is denoted as 2C then it increases to 4C. However, there is no increase in the chromosome number; if the cell had diploid or 2N number of chromosomes at G„ even after S phase the number of chromosomes remains the same, i.e., 2N.
In mitotic anaphase, number of chromosomes remains the same. It is only sister chromatids which move towards their respective poles. DNA content remains unchanged. In anaphase I of meiosis, number of chromosomes are reduced to half, i.e., from 2N to IN and also DNA content decrease to one half i.e., from 4C to 2C. In anaphase II of meiosis II DNA content decreases to one half from 2C to 1C but chromosome number remain same.
Class 11 biology notes and additional resource content for NEET & AIIMS