Skeletal System

Nov 23, 2022, 16:45 IST

The skeletal system functions as the basic skeleton of the body, and the entire body is built around the hard framework of the skeleton. It combines all bones and tissues associated with cartilage and joints. Almost all rigid or solid body parts are significant skeletal system components. Joints play an important role in the skeletal system because they help allow different types of movement in other places. If the skeleton were without joints, there would be no signs of movement in the human body.

Biology articles Human Skeleton

Skeletal System Anatomy

This skeletal system can be further divided into the appendicular and axial systems. In an adult body, it is mainly consists of 206 individual bones, which are divided into two main divisions-

Axial skeleton

The axial skeleton runs with the central axis of the body. Therefore it is known as the central core of the human body. The axial skeleton includes 80 bones, and it consists of the following:

  • Skull Bone - It includes 14 facial bones, 8 cranial bones, 6 auditory ossicles, and the Hyoid Bone.
  • Bone of the Thoracic Cage - It consists of 24 ribs and 25 bones of the thorax- a breastbone.
  • Vertebral column's bone - It includes 24 vertebrae bones, the coccyx bone, and the sacrum bone.

Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is consists of 126 bones, and it comprises of the-

  • Pelvic girdle
  • Upper Limbs
  • Lower Limbs
  • Shoulder Girdle or the Pectoral

Skeletal System Physiology

The major functions of the skeletal system include movement, support, protective blood cell formation, mineral storage, and endocrine regulation.

  1. Support

The skeletal system's primary function is to provide a solid framework to support and also protect the human body and its organs. This helps to maintain the overall shape of the human body.

  1. Protection

The skeletal system also helps protect our internal organs and other sensitive body organs, including the heart, lungs, brain, and spinal cord, by acting as a buffer. Our cranium (skull) protects our eyes and brain, our ribs protect our lungs and heart, and our vertebrae (backbones, spine) protect our spinal cord.

  1. Movement

Bones also provide the basic structure for muscles to attach to so our bodies can move. Tendons are hard, inelastic bands that attach muscles to a given bone.

  1. Storage

Bone matrix of the skeletal system is primarily involved in storing various essential minerals required to facilitate the repair and growth of body cells and tissues. The cell matrix acts as our calcium bank by just storing and releasing calcium ions into the blood cells when needed.

  1. Regulation of endocrine glands

Bone cells in the skeletal system play an essential role in releasing the synthesized hormones from the respective endocrine glands for the further need of the body for various metabolisms. In addition to these functions, the skeletal system is also involved in regulating blood sugar.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

Q1. Which are short bones?

Ans. Short bones include carpal bones of the hands that allow the tarsal bones of the feet and movement of the wrist that allows ankle movement.

Q2. Which bone takes the longest to heal?

Ans. The femur (your thigh bone) is your body's strongest and largest bone.

Q3. What type of bone is fingers?

Ans. Phalanges

Q4. Who protects bone?

Ans. There are 206 bones in the human body. Each bone has 3 main layers: Periosteum: The periosteum is a tough membrane that covers and also protects the outside of the bone. Compact bone: Below the periosteum, compact bone is white, complex, and smooth.

Related Link

Talk to Our counsellor