Major Crop Types

Agriculture Class 8 of Class 8

Types of Major Crops

Food Crops

  • Rice
  1. Rice is the major food crop of the world.
  2. It is the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions.
  3. Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water.
  4. China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt.
  5. In favourable climatic conditions as in West Bengal and Bangladesh two to three crops a year are grown.
  • Wheat
  1. Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest and loamy soil.
  2. Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India.
  3. In India it is grown in winter.
  • Millets
  1. They are also known as coarse grains and can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils.
  2. It is a hardy crop that needs low to adequate rainfall and high to moderate temperature.
  3. Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India.
  4. Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger.
  • Maize
  1. It requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine and well drained fertile soils.
  2. Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China Russia, Canada, India and Mexico.
  3. The leading producers is the U.S.A.

Fibre Crops

  • Cotton
  1. It requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
  2. It grows best on black and alluvial soils.
  3. China, USA, India, Pakistan Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton.
  4. It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.
  • Jute
  1. It was also known as the 'Golden Fibre'.
  2. It requires alluvial soil high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate.
  3. This crop is grown in the tropical areas.
  4. India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.

Beverage Crops

  • Coffee
  1. It requires warm and wet climate and weii-drained loamy soil.
  2. Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
  3. Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.
  • Tea 
  1. Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations.
  2. This requires cool climate and well distributed high rainfall throughout the year forthe growth of its tender leaves.
  3. It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes.
  4. Labour in large number is required to pick the leaves.
  5. Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.
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