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Introduction

Aldehydes and Ketones of Class 12

Both aldehydes & ketones contain carbonyl group as their functional group.

Structure of carbonyl group

Both aldehydes & ketones have a carbonyl group as the functional group. The carbonyl carbon is sp2 hybridized & it uses sp2 hybrid orbitals to form 3σ bonds, one with oxygen atom & remaining 2 with two other atoms or groups (R or H). All these 3σ bonds lie in same plane at the angle of 120°.

The unhybridized p – orbital of carbonyl carbon form π - bond with oxygen atom by sidewise overlapping with half-filled p – orbital of the oxygen atom.

Since carbon & oxygen has different values of electronegativity, the bond between carbon & oxygen is polar. In fact electron density around the oxygen atom is increased which causes the development of partial positive charge (δ+) on carbon & δ− on oxygen.

Thus carbonyl carbon is electrophilic & carbonyl oxygen is the nucleophilic center.

Aldehydes and Ketones

Orbital picture of carbonyl group

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