Chemical Bonding of Class 11
A molecule is formed if it is more stable and has lower energy than the individual atoms. Normally only electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are involved in bond formation and in this process each atom attains a stable electronic configuration of inert gas. Atoms may attain stable electronic configuration in three different ways by loosing electrons, by gaining or by sharing electrons. Elements may be divided into three classes.
Electropositive elements, whose atoms give up one or more electrons easily, they have low ionization potentials.
Electronegative elements, which can gain electrons. They have higher value of electronegativity.
Elements which have little tendency to loose or gain electrons.
Three different types of bond may be formed depending on the electropositive or electronegative character of the atoms involved.
Electropositive element + Electronegative element = Ionic bond (electrovalent bond)
Electronegative element + Electronegative element = Covalent bond
Electropositive + Electropositive element = Metallic bond.
- General Properties Of Ionic And Covalent Bonds
- CO-Ordinate Covalency
- Vsepr Theory (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory)
- Rule For Determination Of Total Number Of Hybrid Orbitals
- Rules For Writing Resonating Structures
- Deviation From Ideal Behavior
- Factors Governing Polarization And Polarisability (Fajan's Rule)
- Dipole Moment In Aromatic Ring System
- Percentage Of Iconic Character
- Hydrogen Bonding
- Types Of Hydrogen Bonding
- Effect Of Hydrogen Bonding
- Importance Of Hydrogen Bonding In Biological Systems
- Molecular Orbital Theory
- Inert Pair Effect
- Back Bonding
- Exercise 1
- Exercise 2
- Exercise 3
- Exercise 4
- Exercise 5