What are the Branches of botany?
BRANCHES OF BOTANY
During the 19th and 20th centuries Botany progressed rapidly accumulating knowledge on various aspects of plant life. It is divided into different specific branches to facilitate an easy study. Some of them are outlined here:
- Morphology: It deals with the study and description of different organs of plant. Morphology is divided into two parts.
- External Morphology: It is the study and description of external characters of plant organs like root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, seed etc.
Internal Morphology: It is the study of internal structure of different plant organs. It has two branches.
- Histology : It is the study of different tissues present in the plant body.
- Anatomy : It deals with the study of gross internal details of plant organs like root, stem, leaf, flower etc.
- Cytology (or) Cell Biology : It is the study of structure and functions of cell and cell organelles and their multiplication.
- Embryology :This branch deals with the study of development of male and female gametophytes, formation of gametes, process of fertilization, development of embryo, endosperm and seed.
- Palynology :The study of the development, structure, and all other aspects related to microspores or pollen grains is called Palynology.
- Plant Taxonomy :It deals with the identification, nomenclature and classification of plants into related groups on the basis of information obtained from different fields of Botany.
- Plant Physiology :This branch deals with the study of different vital activities of plants like absorption of water and minerals, photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, growth etc.
- Plant Ecology : It is the study of reciprocal relationship between the plants and the environment in which they are living.
- Palaeobotany : It deals with the study of fossil plants. It helps us in understanding the course of evolution in plants.
- 9. Genetics :This branch deals with all aspects related to genes such as their structure, synthesis, inheritance, mutations etc.
- 10. Phytogeography :It is the study of distribution of plants in different parts of the globe during the past and present periods of time.
- 11. Phycology :It is the study of all aspects related to algae, which are chlorophyllous and autotrophic thallopytes.
- 12. Mycology :It deals with the study of fungi which are non-chlorophyllous, heterotrophic thallophytes.
- 13. Lichenology : It is the study of lichens which are a special group of plants in which an algal member and a fungal member live together as symbionts. They mostly grow on rocks.
- 14. Bryology : The study of bryophytes is called Bryology.
- 15.Pteridology : It is the study of pteridophytes which are the first vascular plants and therefore called ‘Vascular Cryptogams’.
16. Microbiology : This branch includes the study of all microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoans etc.
- Bacteriology : It is the study of bacteria
- Virology : This branch is concerned with the study of viruses.
- Pomology : Study of fruits and fruit yielding plants.
- Anthology : Study of flowers.
- Agrostology : Study of grasses or lawns.
- Dendrology or xylology : Study of shrubs and trees.
- Dendrochronology : Deteremination of age of the trees by counting annual rings.
- Phenology : Study of seasonal changes in plants.
- Xylotomy :Study of wood or Xylem vessels.
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