Atomic Structure of Class 11
If the atom gains energy the electron passes from a lower energy level to a higher energy level, energy is absorbed that means a specific wave length is absorbed. Consequently, a dark line will appear in the spectrum. This dark line constitutes the absorption spectrum.
If the atom loses energy, the electron passes from higher to a lower energy level, energy is released and a spectral line of specific wavelength is emitted. This line constitutes the emission spectrum.
If an electric discharge is passed through hydrogen gas taken in a discharge tube under low pressure, and the emitted radiation is analysed with the help of spectrograph, it is found to consist of a series of sharp lines in the UV, visible and IR regions. This series of lines is known as line or atomic spectrum of hydrogen. The lines in the visible region can be directly seen on the photographic film.
Each line of the spectrum corresponds to a light of definite wavelength. The entire spectrum consists of six series of lines each series, known after their discoverer as the Balmer, Paschen, Lyman, Brackett, Pfund and Humphrey series. The wavelength of all these series can be expressed by a single formula.
= wave number
λ = wave length
R = Rydberg constant (109678 cm–1)
n1 and n2 have integral values as follows
Series n1n2Main spectral lines
Lyman 12,3,4, etcUltra – violet
Balmer23,4,5 etc Visible
Paschen 34,5,6 etc Infra – red
Brackett 45,6,7 etc Infra – red
Pfund56,7,8, etc Infra – red
[Note: All lines in the visible region are of Balmer series but reverse is not true. i.e., all Balmer lines will not fall in visible region]
The pattern of lines in atomic spectrum is characteristic of hydrogen.
Types of Emission spectra
i) Continuous spectra: When white light from any source such as sun or bulb is analysed by passing through a prism, it splits up into seven different wide bands of colour from violet to red (like rainbow). These colour are so continuous that each of them merges into the next. Hence the spectrum is called as continuous spectrum.
ii) Line spectra: When an electric discharge is passed through a gas at low pressure light is emitted. If this light is resolved by a spectroscope, It is found that some isolated coloured lines are obtained on a photographic plate separated from each other by dark spaces. This spectrum is called line spectrum. Each line in the spectrum corresponds to a particular wavelength. Each element gives its own characteristic spectrum.