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Chemical Formula of Compounds

Chemistry Formulas

Chemical Formula

The chemical formula of a given compound is a symbolic representation of its chemical composition. Chemical formulas provide insight into the elements that constitute the composite molecules and the extent to which the atoms of these elements combine to form such molecules. For example, the chemical formula of water is H2O, that suggests two hydrogen atoms which combine with one oxygen atom to form a water molecule.

Importance of Chemical Formula :

  • Chemical formulas provide insight into the chemical composition of compounds.
  • They represent the proportions by which constituent elements combine to form a compound.
  • The chemical formula of the compound is important while representing in the chemical equation.
  • Chemical formulas can also be used to represent ions, free radicals and other types of chemicals.

Types of Chemical Formula :

The term 'chemical formula' usually refers to the molecular formula of a compound (representing the total number of atoms of each component in a single composite molecule), the composition of chemical compounds can be expressed in a different ways are given below:

Molecular Formula:

The molecular formula provides insight into the number of elements present in a compound. In the molecular formula, elements are denoted by their symbols (such as the periodic table) and the number of atoms of each element in a molecule is subscript. For example - molecular formula of sugar cells is C6H12O6.

Empirical Formula:

The empirical formula for a given chemical compound represents the ratio of the elements present in that compound. Empirical formulas are usually obtained based on analysis of data. The empirical formula of glucose is CH2O. Empirical formulas can be derived from molecular formulas.

Structure Formula:

As the name suggests, the structural formula for the chemical compound provides insight into the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.

How to write Chemical Formula

  • To write a chemical formula, it is important to know the symbol of each elements present in the compound. The formula of the radicals and the valency of the elements in that compound. The following points should be kept in mind while writing a chemical formula.
  • Most compounds are binary, i.e. they have two elements. Compounds with more than two elements.
  • An atom with a positive charge is called a cation and an atom with a negative charge is called an anion.
  • With a combination of metal and non-metallic, the metal is first named followed by non-metallic. Example: NaCl containing Na + (iron ion) and Cl (non-ferrous ion)
  • Anions with -1 negative charge usually have a long-suffix. Example: F-Floride
  • Anions with oxyanion (oxygen + another element) usually have an add-on. Example - SO42- (Sulphate)
  • If the polyatomic anion contains H-ion, bi- or hydrogen is used as a suffix. Example - HCO3- Bicarbonate or hydrogen carbonat

Some polyatomic anions can be called

Chemical Formula Polyatomic Anion
NH2 Amide
PO43- Phosphate
CN Cyanide


List of Chemical Compound Formula

Name of the Chemical Compound Formula Name of the Chemical Compound Formula
Acetic acid formula CH3COOH Iodide formula I
Aluminium hydroxide formula Al (OH)3 Iodine formula I2
Acetate formula CH3COO- Iron iii nitrate formula Fe (NO3)3
Acetone formula C3H6O Iron ii oxide formula FeO
Aluminium acetate formula C6H9AlO6 Iron iii carbonate formula Fe2(CO3)3
Aluminum bromide formula AlBr3 Iron iii hydroxide formula Fe(OH)3
Aluminum carbonate formula Al2(CO3)3 Iron iii oxide formula Fe2O3
Aluminum chloride formula AlCl3 Iron iii chloride formula FeCl3
Aluminum fluoride formula AlF3 Lactic acid formula C3H6O3
Aluminum formula Al Lead acetate formula Pb(C2H3O2)2
Aluminum iodide formula AlI3 Lead ii acetate formula Pb(C2H3O2)2
Aluminum oxide formula Al2O3 Lead iodide formula PbI2
Aluminum phosphate formula AlPO4 Lead iv oxide formula PbO2
Amino acid formula H2NCHRCOOH Lead nitrate formula Pb(NO3)2
Ammonia formula NH4 Lithium bromide formula LiBr
Ammonium dichromate formula Cr2H8N2O7 Lithium chloride formula LiCl2
Ammonium acetate formula C2H3O2NH4 Lithium hydroxide formula LiOH
Ammonium bicarbonate formula NH4HCO3 Lithium iodide formula LiI
Ammonium bromide formula NH4Br Lithium oxide formula Li2O
Ammonium carbonate formula (NH4)2CO3 Lithium phosphate formula Li3PO4
Ammonium chloride formula NH4Cl Magnesium acetate formula Mg(CH3COO)2
Ammonium hydroxide formula NH4OH Magnesium bicarbonate formula C2H2MgO6
Ammonium iodide formula NH4I Magnesium carbonate formula MgCO3
Ammonium nitrate formula NH4NO3 Magnesium chloride formula MgCl2
Aluminium sulfide formula Al2S3 Magnesium hydroxide formula Mg (OH)2
Ammonium nitrite formula NH4NO2 Magnesium iodide formula MgI2
Ammonium oxide formula (NH4)2O Magnesium nitrate formula Mg (NO3)2
Ammonium phosphate formula (NH4)3PO4 Magnesium nitride formula Mg3N2
Ammonium sulfate formula (NH4)2SO4 Magnesium carbonate formula MgCO3
Ammonium sulfide formula (NH4)2S Magnesium bromide formula MgBr2
Argon gas formula Ar Magnesium oxide formula MgO
Ascorbic acid formula C6H8O6 Magnesium phosphate formula Mg3(PO4)2
Barium acetate formula Ba(C2H3O2)2 Magnesium sulfate formula MgSO4
Barium bromide formula BaBr2 Magnesium sulfide formula MgS
Barium chloride formula BaCl2 Methane formula CH4
Barium fluoride formula BaF2 Methanol formula CH3OH
Barium hydroxide formula Ba(OH)2 Nickel acetate formula Ni(C2H3O2)2
Barium iodide formula BaI2 Nickel nitrate formula Ni (NO3)2
Barium nitrate formula Ba(NO3)2 Nitric acid formula HNO3
Barium oxide formula BaO Nitride formula N3
Barium phosphate formula Ba3O8P2 Nitrite formula NO2
Barium sulfate formula BaSO4 Nitrogen dioxide formula NO2
Benzene formula C6H6 Nitrogen monoxide formula NO
Benzoic acid formula C7H6O2 Nitrous acid formula HNO2
Bicarbonate formula CHO3 Oxalate formula C2O42−
Bleach formula NaClO Oxalic acid formula H2C2O4
Boric acid formula H3BO3 Oxygen formula O2
Potassium Bromate formula KBrO3 Ozone formula O3
Bromic acid formula HBrO3 Perbromic acid formula HBrO4
Bromine formula Br Potassium Permanganate formula KMnO4
Butane formula C4H10 Permanganate ion formula MnO4
Butanoic acid formula C4H8O2 Phosphate formula PO43-
Calcium acetate formula C4H6CaO4 Sodium hydrogen phosphate formula Na2HPO4
Calcium bromide formula CaBr2 Sodium formate formula CHNaO2
Calcium carbonate formula CaCO3 Phosphoric acid formula H3PO4
Calcium hydride formula CaH2 Phosphorus pentachloride formula PCl5
Calcium hydroxide formula Ca (OH)2 Phosphorus trichloride formula PCl3
Calcium iodide formula CaI2 Potassium acetate formula CH3CO2K
Calcium nitrate formula Ca (NO3)2 Potassium bicarbonate formula KHCO3
Calcium oxide formula CaO Potassium carbonate formula K2CO3
Carbon monoxide formula CO Potassium chlorate formula KClO3
Carbon tetrachloride formula CCl4 Potassium hydrogen phosphate formula K2HPO4
Carbonic acid formula H2CO3 Potassium chloride formula KCl
Calcium phosphate formula Ca3(PO4)2 Potassium chromate formula CrK2O4
Carbonic acid formula H2CO3 Potassium cyanide formula KCN
Citric acid formula C6H8O7 Potassium dichromate formula K2Cr2O7
Chlorate formula ClO3 Potassium fluoride formula KF
Chlorine formula Cl Potassium hydroxide formula KOH
Chlorine gas formula Cl2 Potassium hypochlorite formula KClO
Chlorous acid formula HClO2 Potassium iodide formula KI
Chromate formula CrO42- Potassium dihydrogen phosphate formula KH2PO4
Chromic acid formula H2CrO4 Potassium nitrate formula KNO3
Citric acid formula C6H8O7 Potassium nitrite formula KNO2
Copper II carbonate formula CuCO3 Potassium oxide formula K2O
Copper II nitrate formula Cu (NO3)2 Potassium iodate formula KIO3
Cyanide formula CN Potassium phosphate formula KH2PO4
Dichromate formula K2Cr2O7 Potassium sulfite formula K2SO3
Dihydrogen monoxide formula H2O Salicylic acid formula C7H6O3
Dinitrogen monoxide formula N2O Silicon dioxide formula SiO2
Dinitrogen pentoxide formula N2O5 Silver acetate formula AgC2H3O2
Dinitrogen trioxide formula N2O3 Silver carbonate formula Ag2CO3
Ethanol formula C2H5OH Silver chloride formula AgCl
Iron oxide formula Fe2O3 Silver nitrate formula AgNO3
Ethylene glycol formula C2H6O2 Silver oxide formula Ag2O
Fluorine gas formula F2 Silver phosphate formula Ag3PO4
Aluminum bromide formula AlBr3 Sodium acetate formula C2H3NaO2
Aluminum sulfide formula Al2S3 Sodium bicarbonate formula NaHCO3
Ammonium carbonate formula (NH4)2CO3 Sodium bromide formula NaBr
Ammonium nitrate formula (NH4) (NO3) Sodium thiosulfate formula Na2S2O3
Ammonium phosphate formula (NH4)3PO4 Sodium carbonate formula Na2CO3
Barium chloride formula BaCl2 Sodium chloride formula NaCl
Barium sulfate formula BaSO4 Sodium chromate formula Na2CrO4
Calcium nitrate formula Ca (NO3)2 Sodium citrate formula Na3C6H5O7
Carbon monoxide formula CO Sodium cyanide formula NaCN
Carbon tetrachloride formula CCl4 Sodium dichromate formula Na2Cr2O7
Carbon tetrachloride formula CCl4 Sodium dichromate formula Na2Cr2O7
Carbonic acid formula H2CO3 Sodium fluoride formula NaF
Hydrofluoric acid formula HF Sodium hydroxide formula NaOH
Hydroiodic acid formula HI Sodium hypochlorite formula NaClO
Hypochlorous acid formula HClO Sodium iodide formula NaI
Lithium phosphate formula Li3PO4 Uric acid formula C5H4N4O3
Magnesium nitrate formula MgNO3 Sodium nitrate formula NaNO3
Magnesium phosphate formula Mg3(PO4)2 Sodium nitride formula Na3N
Nitrogen monoxide formula NO Sodium nitrite formula NaNO2
Nitrous acid formula HNO2 Sodium oxide formula Na2O
Potassium carbonate formula K2CO3 Sodium peroxide formula Na2O2
Potassium iodide formula KI Sodium phosphate formula Na3PO4
Potassium nitrate formula KNO3 Sodium sulfate formula Na2SO4
Potassium phosphate formula KH2PO4 Sodium sulfide formula Na2S
Sodium carbonate formula Na2CO3 Sodium sulfite formula Na2SO3
Sodium oxide formula Na2O Strontium chloride formula SrCl2
Fructose chemical formula C6H12O6 Strontium nitrate formula Sr (NO3)2
Glycerol formula C3H8O3 Sucrose formula C12H22O11
Helium gas formula He Sugar formula C12H22O11
Hexane formula C6H14 Sulfate ion formula SO42−
Hydrobromic acid formula HBr Sulfur dioxide formula SO2
Hydrochloric acid formula HCl Sulfur trioxide formula SO3
Hydrocyanic acid formula HCN Sulfuric acid formula H2SO4
Hydrofluoric acid formula HF Sulfurous acid formula H2SO3
Hydrogen carbonate formula CHO3– Tartaric acid formula C4H6O6
Hydrogen gas formula H2 Toluene formula C7H8
Hydrogen peroxide formula H2O2 Urea formula CH4N2O
Hydrogen phosphate formula H3PO4 Vinegar formula C2H4O2
Hydrogen sulfate formula HSO4 Zinc acetate formula Zn(O2CCH3)2
Hydroiodic acid formula HI Zinc carbonate formula ZnCO3
Hydrosulfuric acid formula H2SO4 Zinc chloride formula ZnCl2
Hydroxide formula OH Zinc hydroxide formula Zn (OH)2
Hypobromous acid formula HBrO Zinc iodide formula ZnI2
Hypochlorite formula NaClO Zinc nitrate formula Zn (NO3)2
Hypochlorous acid formula HClO Zinc phosphate formula Zn3(PO4)2
Hypoiodous acid formula HIO Zinc sulfate formula ZnSO4
Iodic acid formula HIO3 Zinc sulfide formula ZnS


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