NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History chapter-5 The Age of Industrialisation

NCERT Solutions for class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation is prepared by senior and renown teachers of Physics Wallah primary focus while solving science questions of class 10 is NCERT textbook, Also do read theory of this Chapter before solving the Questions. We have prepared all Solutions of Chapter 5.

Write in brief

1. Explain the following :

(a.) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.

(b.) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.

(c.) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.

(d.) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.

Solution :


  • Women workers in Britain were surviving on the hand spinning job.
  • Spinning Jenny speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time.
  • They developed a valid fear that the new machine may take up their jobs and make them unemployed.
  • Already the cottage and poor peasants were facing economic constraints due to various reasons.
  • All these things made women workers turn violent and they started attacking Spinning Jenny.


  • The demand for goods increased with the expansion of world trade merchant needed more production.
  • The trade and commerce guilds controlled the market, raw materials, employees, and also production of goods in the towns.  So the merchants could not expand production within towns.
  • This created problems for merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men.
  • Therefore, they turned to peasants and artisans who lived in villages.


  • By the end of the eighteenth century European companies in a trade with India gradually gained power
  • They secured many concessions from local courts as well as the monopoly rights to trade.
  • Exports from the ports like Surat felled dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and local bankers here went slowly bankrupt.
  • Gross value of trade from Surat declined from Rs.16 million at the end of the seventeenth century to Rs.3 million by 1740.
  • The old trading houses collapsed, those that wanted to survive had to now operate within a network shaped by European trading companies.

(d) The English East India Company appointed Gomasthas for :

  • The East India company wanted to ensure regular supply of fine silk and cotton textiles.
  • To eliminate the existence of traders and brokers and establish direct control over the weavers through Gomasthas who supervised weavers, collected supplies and examined the quality of cloth.
  • To eliminate weavers from dealing with other buyers by means of advances and control. In this manner, weavers who took loans and fees in advance were obligated to the British and could not take their cloth to any other trader.
  • Thus company controlled costs and eliminated bargaining power of the weavers.
  • There were often reports of clashes between weavers and gomsthas.They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in the supply-often beating and flogging them.

2. Write True or False against each statement :

(a.) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 percent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.

(b.) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.

(c.) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.

(d.) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled hand loom workers to improve their productivity.

Solution : (a) False (b) True (c) False (d) True

3. Explain what is meant by proto-industrialization.

Solution : Proto-industrialization is the phase of industrialization that was not based on the factory system. Before the coming of factories, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This part of industrial history is known as proto-industrialization. This period was marked by merchants from towns getting products made in villages. The merchants supplied money to the peasants in the countryside. The land was becoming scarce in villages. Small plots of land were not enough to meet the need for a growing population. Peasants were looking for some additional sources of income.

Discuss Project work

1. Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Solution : Some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe preferred hand labour over machines because:

• Machines were costly, ineffective, difficult to repair, and needed huge capital investments.

• Labour was available at low wages at that period of time as unemployment was high.So industrialists did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment.

• Most of the industries were seasonal. In seasonal industries, only seasonal labour was required. In all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industries usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.

• Markets from Upper classes demanded a variety of designs and colour and specific type could not be fulfilled by machine made clothes. Intricate designs and colours could be done by human-skills only.

• In Victorian age, the aristocrats and other upper class people preferred articles made by hand only. Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class. They were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed.

2. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?

Solution : The English East India Company used different means to procure silk and cotton from the weavers :

• Once East India company established political supremacy it monopolised the trade and eliminated its rival traders controlled the costs and ensured regular supplies of cotton and silk goods.

• They developed a system of management and direct control over the weavers by appointing paid supervisors called Gomasthas.

• Gomasthas supervised weavers and also collected supplies and examined cloth quality of the weavers.

• He ensured prevention of Company weavers from dealing with other buyers through a system of advances and loans. As loans flowed in demand for fine textiles expanded, weavers eagerly took advances, hoping to earn more. Now they had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving .

• In many villages, there were reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoy and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply -often beating and flogging them.

3. Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.

Solution :

Britain and the History of Cotton
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants would trade with rural people in textile production. A clothier would buy wool from a wool stapler, carry it to the spinners then take the yarn to the weavers, fuller and dyers for further levels of production. London was the finishing centre for all these goods. This phase in British manufacturing history is known as proto-industrialisation. In this phase, factories were not an essential part of the industry.

The first symbol of the new era of factories was cotton. Its production increased manifolds in the late nineteenth century and early twenties. Imports of raw cotton sky-rocketed from 2.5 million pounds in 1760 to 22 million pounds in 1787. This happened because of the invention of the cotton mills and new machines and better management under one roof. Till 1840 cotton was one of the leading sectors in the first stage of industrialisation.

Most inventions in the textile production sector were met with disregard and hatred by the workers because machines implied less hand labour and lower employment was required. The Spinning Jenny was one of such invention. Women in the woollen industry opposed and sought to destroy it because it was taking over their place in the labour market.

Before such technological advancements, Britain imported silk and cotton goods from India in vast numbers. Fine textiles from India were brought in high demand in Great Britain. When the East India Company attained political power, they exploited the weavers and textile industry in India to its fullest potential, often by force, for the benefit of their own interest. Later Manchester became the hub of cotton production. Subsequently, India was turned into the major buyer of British cotton goods.

During the First World War, British factories were too busy providing for war needs. Hence, demand for Indian textiles rose once again. The history of cotton in Britain is replete with such fluctuations of demand and supply.

4. Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

Solution : India witnessed increased industrial production during the First World War due to the following reasons :

  • British industries became busy in producing and supplying war-needs. Therefore, they stopped exporting British goods or clothes for colonial markets like that in India. Manchester imports to India declined.
  • It was a good opportunity for Indian industries to fill in empty Indian markets with their own products. Hence industrial production in India increased.
  • As the war prolonged the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply the war goods like – jute bags, cloth or army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddle, etc.
  • The increased demands of a variety of products led to the setting up of new factories in the cities and old ones increased their production.
  • New workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours to increase production.

Aditional Resource Notes For Class-10

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