NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter-6
NCERT Solutions For Class 8 History
NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter 6 - Colonialism and the City
Find below NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter 6 - Colonialism and the City prepared by Academic team of Physics Wallah. Do follow our NCERT solutions for other subject like NCERT solutions for class 8 Maths and NCERT solutions for class 8 Science.
Q1. State whether true or false:
a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialization.
b) Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.
d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.
Ans. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) True (e) False
Q2. Fill in the blanks:
a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the ________.
b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were _____ and _________.
c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as _______.
d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the ______ was devised.
Ans. (a) minar (b) Edward Lutyens, Henry Baker (c) black areas (d) Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme.
Q3. Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
Ans. Shahjahanabad .New Delhi
a) Shahjahanabad (begun in 1639) was constructed as a fort palace complex and city adjoining it.a).New Delhi was built by the British in the twentieth century on a modern planning and pattern
b) There were 14 gates of entry into the city. Some of them still stand are: Delhi gate, Ajmeri gate and Kashmiri gate. The main streets of Chandni Chowk and Faiz Bazaar were broad enough for royal processions to pass. There were densely packed mohallas and several dozen bazaars. Jama Masjid was among the largest and grandest mosque in India.b)New Delhi was a very clean city. The new city had broad roads, big bungalows and many gardens. It had improved drainage system. New Delhi represents a sense of law and order in contrast to the chaos of Old Delhi.
c) Shahjahanabad was confined to the walls built by Shah Jahan. The old culture was based on Urdu.c)The area around Red Fort was cleaned in New Delhi. The culture of Urdu was replaced by Punjabi culture.
Q4 Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?
Ans. British and Europeans lived in the “White” areas in cities (Bombay and Calcutta) such as Madras (now Chennai).
Q5. What is meant by de-urbanization?
Ans. Decline and decay of the cities is called de-urbanization. For example; in the late eighteenth century, many towns manufacturing specialized goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Also, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged.
Q6. Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
Ans. Following causes were responsible to this:
a) The British were fully aware of the symbolic importance of Delhi. During the Revolt of 1857, the British had realized that the Mughal emperor was still important to the people and they saw him as their leader. It was, therefore, important to celebrate British power with pomp and show in the city, the Mughal emperors had earlier ruled.
b) In 1911, when King George V was crowned in England, a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the occasion. The decision to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced at this Durbar.
Q7. How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?
Ans. a) Delhi was captured by the British in 1803 after defeating the Marathas. The modern city of Delhi developed after 1911, when it became the capital of British India.
b) When the British recaptured Delhi in September 1857, they ravaged and plundered the whole city.
c) The area around the Red Fort was completely cleared for security purpose.
d) The gardens of the royal palace were shut down.
e) Several places were razed and barracks were built in their place for British troops to stay.
f) The Zinat-al-Masjid was converted to bakery.
g) One-third of the monuments in Delhi were demolished and the canals were filled up.
h) Railway tracks were laid down, and thus, the city expanded beyond the huge walls.
Q8. How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
Ans. The following changes could be seen in Delhi after Partition:
a) As a result of Partition of India in 1947, there was a mass transfer of people from both India and Pakistan. It resulted in an increase in population of Delhi, change of job and culture of the city and its people.
b) The riots followed the Partition, thousands of people in Delhi were killed, their homes looted and burned.
c) The refugees who came from Pakistan occupied the empty houses of Shahjahanabad. Many refugees came to Delhi from Punjab.
d) As most of the migrants were from Punjab, the Urdu based culture of Delhi ws replaced by the new culture of Punjab and other native places of migrants.
e) New shops and stalls were set-up[ to meet the demands. New colonies of Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar were formed at this time.
f) Old Delhi also witnessed the extinction of Havelis.
Q9 Find out the history of the town you live in or any town nearby. Check when and how it grew, and how it has changed over the years. You could look at the history of the bazaars, the buildings, culture institutions and settlements.
Ans. I am Shivaji Dhawle. I am living in Mumbai (previously called Bombay). I am giving the brief history and stages of its development below:
Architecture in Bombay:
a) Joining of islands: Bombay was initially seven islands. As the population grew, the island were joined to create more space and gradually changed into one big city. Bombay was the commercial capital of colonial India. As the premier part on the western coast it was the centre of international trade.
As the Bombay’s economy grew, from the mid-nineteenth century there was a need to expand railways and shipping and develop the administrative structure. Many new buildings were constructed at this time. These buildings reflected the culture and confidence of the rulers.
b) As a trade centre: By the end of the nineteenth century, half the imports and exports of India passed through Bombay. One important item of this trade was opium that the East India Company exported to China. Indian merchants and middlemen supplied and participated in this trade and they helped integrate.
c) Style of Architecture of Buildings: The architectural style was usually European. This impartation of European style reflected the imperial vision in several ways. First, it expressed the British desire to create a familiar landscape in an alien country and thus to feel at home in the colony. Second, the British felt that European styles would best symbolize their superiority, authority and power.
Initially, these building were at odds with the traditional Indian buildings. Gradually, Indians too got used to European architecture and made it their own. The British in turn adapted some Indian styles to suit their needs.
d) Another style that was extensively used with the new-Gothic, characterized by high-pitched roofs, pointed arches and detailed decoration. The Gothic style had its roots in buildings; especially churches build in northern Europe during the medieval period. Indians gave money for some of these buildings. The University Hall was made with money donated by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir, a rich Parsi merchant.
I am S. Karunanidhi. I am living at Chennai (previously called Madras). A brief history of it and stages of development are given below:
a) Coming of the English on East coast: The Company had first set up its trading activities in the well-established port of Surat on the west coast. Subsequently the search for textiles brought British merchants to the east coast.
b) Purchase of the land for the city of Madras: In 1639, they constructed a trading post in Madraspatam. This settlement was locally known as Cheenapattanam. The Company had purchased the right of settlement from local Telugu lords, the Nayaks of Kalahasti, who were eager to support trading activity in the region.
c) Fortification of Madras and its results: Rivalry (1746-63) with the French East India Company led the British to fortify Madras and give their representatives increased political and administrative function. With the defeat of the French in 1761, Madras become more secure and began to grow into an important commercial town. It was here that the superiority of the British and the subordinate position of the Indian merchants was most apparent.
d) White Town within Madras: Fort St. George became the nucleus of the White Town where most of the Europeans live. Walls and bastions made this a distinct enclave. Colour and religion determined who was allowed to live with the fort. The Company did not permit any marriages with Indians. Other than the English, the Dutch and Portuguese were allowed to stay here because they were European and Christians. The administrative and the judicial system also favoured the while population.
e) Black Town with Madras: The Black town developed onside the Fort. It was laid out in straight lines, characteristics of colonial towns. It was, however demolished in the mid-1700s and the area was cleared for a security zone around the Fort. A new Black town developed further to the north. This housed weaver, artisans, middlemen and interpreters who played vital role in the Company’s trade.
f) Collection of taxation and information: For a long while they were suspicious of census operations and believed that enquiries were being conducted to impose new taxes. Upper caste people were also unwilling to give any information regarding the women of their household. Women were supposed to remain secluded within the interior of the household and not subjected to public Gaza or public enquiry.
Q10. Make a list of at least ten occupations in the city, town or village to which you belong and find out how long they have existed. What does this tell you about the changes within this area?
Ans. List of ten occupations of village or town:
v. Medicine and surgery
vi. Rearing of animals
ix. Textile designing
x. Interior decoration
I. Agriculture: Agriculture is the oldest occupation in the villages. The farming methods have been changed from traditional to modern. The new and improved irrigation methods, uses of manures, fertilizers have introduced.
II. Wood-work: The latest tools, implements and machines are being used which has improved he standard of living of carpenters.
III. Jewellery making: Though the people have been using Jewellery since ancient times, there have been drastic changes in the designs of Jewellery.
IV. Teaching: The latest methods of teaching with use of computers, CDs are being used.
V. Medicine and surgery: Though the patients are being treated since old, there have been advancement in this field which has reduced the death rate.
VI. Rearing of animals: The dairy farms have been developed which have electric fittings for cattle provide them facilities.
VII. Blacksmith: With the help of latest technology, all types of grills, windows, iron-rods are being prepared, according to the needs of customers.
VIII. Trade: Traders are using greater use of services like banking, transport and modern methods of business management.
IX. Textile designing: From the traditional methods of wearing and spinning the latest methods of machine looms have increased both the quantity and quality of textile.
X. Interior decoration: This is the emerging field in the area of occupations. The houses are designed in still manner taking care of safety measures.
Question: Imagine that you are a young man living in Shahjahanabad in 1700. Based on the description of the area in this chapter write an account of your activities during one day of your life.
Ans. I am directed to suppose and to do the writing work as instructed in the activity work—Let’s imagine. I am a Youngman of twenty years, living in Shahjahanabad in 1700.
1. Aurangzeb is our Emperor. Shahjahanabad is the capital town of the Mughal Empire. It is also a trade centre.
2. I used to go to Jama Masjid daily to offer my prayer to Allah, at least two time a day. I had to go to colourful world of poetry and dance alone because it was allowed only by men. Women are not allowed to visit colourful world of poetry and dance. I had to avoid celebrations and processions because generally these led to serious conflicts. I generally enjoy Urdu/ Persian culture and poetry and participated in local festivals. I used to go five times daily to offer Namaz in Jama Masjid.
As a resident of the old city, we use to get fresh drinking water to our homes. There is an excellent drainage system also. I live in a haveli, which housed many families.