chapter 1-Power Sharing
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Political Science
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Power Sharing
1. What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
The different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies are:
• Horizontal Division of Power: It is the sharing of power among the different organs of government, for example, power-sharing by the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. In this type of power-sharing arrangement, different organs of government, placed at the same level, exercised different powers. Such a separation ensure that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power, thereby putting a check on each other. For example, judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures.
• Vertical Division of Power: It is a system of power sharing among governments at different levels. A general government for the entire country usually known as federal government and governments at provincial or regional levels also known as State Government in India. In India, we refer to it as the Central Government, State Governments, Municipality, Gram Panchayat etc. The Constitution lays down the powers of different levels of government.
• Division of Power among different Social Groups: Power can also be shared among different groups which differ socially like different religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community Government’ in Belgium is a good example of this type of power sharing. The system of reserved constituencies in India is another example. Such an arrangement is used to give minority communities space in the government and administration and a fair share in power, who otherwise would feel alienated from the government.
• Division of Power among Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements: In contemporary democracies such a division takes the form of competition among different parties, which in turn ensure that power does not remain in one hand and is shared among different political parties representing different ideologies and social groups. Sometimes this kind of sharing is direct when two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections.
2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.
• Prudential Reason: Power sharing helps in reducing the conflict between various social groups. Hence, power sharing is necessary for maintaining social harmony and peace. In India, seats are reserved for the weaker sections of society. Example: reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in jobs and government. This allows the weaker sections also to participate in the running of the Government and upliftment in the society.
• Moral Reason: It upholds the spirit of democracy. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens too have a stake in governance. In India, the citizens can come together to debate and criticise the policies and decisions of the government. This, in turn, puts pressure on the government to rethink its policies and reconsider its decisions. People have a say in the government and government is answerable to the people.
3. After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Thomman – Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
Mathayi – Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.
Ouseph – Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.
Ouseph’s statement is the most logical, and thus, should be agreed on. Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions. A democratic society is one where its members or citizens through participation acquire a stake in the system. Power sharing not only prevents conflict between various groups in the society but it also generates a sense of belongingness among them to the society.No single community can take a decision unilaterally. It is realized that unity of the country is only possible by respecting feelings and interest of different communities. Power sharing helps to maintain a balance of power among various institutions and also keep a check on how it is exercised. It reduces conflicts between different social groups. Irrespective of the size of a country or the type of society, people will be more satisfied where they have a say in the functioning and decision making processes of the system. Power sharing is the spirit of democracy. People have the right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
4. The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate into this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
No, This measure is not in keeping with Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements. The arrangements seek to maintain peace between the French and Dutch-speaking communities. By banning French, the mayor will cause civil unrest. Both the languages should be made acceptable in the town’s schools. The unity of a country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Thus bilingual education system will be a better way to integrate the people of the town. Such a realisation would result in a mutually acceptable arrangement for sharing power.
5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power-sharing offered in this.
“We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”
The prudential reason for power sharing offered in this passage is giving power to panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. Panchayats are at the local level hence deepen democracy in our country. Local people have better ideas and knowledge about local problems. They can better understand the problems of the people, thus performing better. Introduction of panchayats has made the country more united and stronger. It has also made the administration easier.
6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power-sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power-sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power sharing:
A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
C. delays decision making process
D. accommodates diversities
E. increases instability and divisiveness
F. promotes people’s participation in government
G. undermines the unity of a country
Explanation: In a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.
7. Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
A. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
B. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala- speaking majority.
C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
D. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B, C and D
(b) A, B and D
(c) C and D
(d) B, C and D
(d) B, C and D
Explanation: The democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy. Sri Lankan Tamils felt that none of the major political parties led by Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture.
In Belgium, the leaders have realized that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions.
8. Match List I (forms of power-sharing) with List-II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:
|List I||List II|
|1||Power shared among different organs of government||Α.||Community government|
|2||Power shared among governments at different levels||Β.||Separation of powers|
|3||Power shared by different social groups||C.||Coalition government|
|4||Power shared by two or more political parties||D.||Federal government|
9. Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
A. Power sharing is good for democracy.
B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?
(a)A is true but B is false
(b) Both A and B are true
(c) Both A and B are false
(d) A is false but B is true
(b) Both A and B are true.
Explanation: There are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in legislatures and administration.