Types Of Ecosystem

Our Environment of Class 10


In the biosphere, Ecosystems may be classified on the basis of:

  • Aquatic Ecosystem
  • Terrestrial Ecosystem


Aquatic Ecosystem:

The aquatic ecosystem refers to all such natural systems found mainly in or in the water. The nature and characteristics of all living and non-living things in the aquatic system are determined based on the environment around their ecosystem. Organisms in these ecosystems interact with different organism in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Following are the types of aquatic ecosystem:

Freshwater ecosystem: It is one of the essential ecosystems for both humans and other organisms living on land. This is because freshwater ecosystem is a source of drinking water. It also helps in providing the necessary energy and water for transportation, recreation, etc.

The freshwater ecosystem mainly includes lentic, lotic, and wetlands.

Lentic: Water bodies that are slow or present in some areas are less than lentic. For example, ponds, lakes, pools, etc. Lakes are known as major water sources and are surrounded by the earth.

Lotic: Fast-moving water bodies fall below the lotic. For example, streams and rivers.

Wetlands: An area with long wet soil that falls under wetlands.

Terrestrial Ecosystem:

The marine environment is usually characterized by presence of salt. These ecosystems are saltier than the ecosystem of fresh water. In addition, they are known as the largest ecosystem on Earth. It usually includes all seas and their components. In addition, the marine ecosystem has a diverse flora and fauna, which supports a much larger diversity of freshwater ecosystems. This type of ecosystem is important for both marine and terrestrial environments.

Specifically, the ecosystem includes salt marshes, lakes, coral reefs, river estuaries, estuaries, mangroves, submarines, and deep seas. The salt marshes, mangrove forests and marshes are said to be among the most productive ecosystem. Coral reefs are known for providing an adequate supply of food and shelter to many marine people around the world.

Following are the types of terrestrial ecosystem:

Forest Ecosystem:

A forest ecosystem is an ecosystem where many organisms live together with abiotic components. There are many kinds of plants and animals in this system of things. This usually means that the forest ecosystem has a high density of living organisms and non-living abiotic elements. The forest environment usually includes a variety of plants, microorganism, animals and other species.

Carbon sinks are much important and play a role in regulating and regulating Erath's total temperature. Changes in the forest ecosystem affect the entire balance of the environment, and severe changes or deforestation can also kill the whole ecosystem. Forests are often subdivided into tropical rain forests, evergreen forests, temperate forests, tropical forests, and Taig.

Grassland ecosystem:

Grassland ecosystem is called those ecosystems where the number of trees is low. This ecosystem mainly includes grass, shrubs, and herbs. That means grass is the main crop in these natural areas, and legumes are often part of the hybrid family.

Grassland ecosystems are common in both tropical and subtropical regions of the world; however, they have a distinct variety. Examples of these ecosystem include savanna grasslands and cooler grasslands. It is home to a variety of grazing animals, insects and herbivores.

Mountain Ecosystem:

As the name implies, the mountainous ecosystem is dominated by mountains when the climate is generally cold and rainy. As a result of climate change, this ecosystem has a wide variety of habitats where species of animals and plants are found. The highlands have a cold and harsh climate. This is the reason why only alpine vegetation is found in these natural areas. Animals found in these natural habitats often have fur coats to protect them from the cold weather.

Besides, especially coniferous trees are found on the lower slopes of the mountains. Examples of mountain ecosystems include mountain peaks in the Arctic regions. He is covered with snow most of the year.

Desert ecosystem:

The Desert ecosystem exists worldwide and covers about 17 percent of its desert areas. These are areas where annual rainfall is usually less than 25 mm. Thanks to a few trees and sandy soil, sunlight is essential to these natural systems. That is why these natural areas have surprisingly high temperatures and low water availability. At night, however, it is very cold.

It has unique flora and fauna. Plants grow with little water and conserve the amount of water that may be present in the leaves and stems. For example, the spiny-leafed cactus is a type of desert plant with a water-retaining feature on the stem. Similarly, animals are also adapted to the desert ecosystem. Other common animals are camels, reptiles, a variety of insects and birds.


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