In the Periodic Acid Formula, iodine is in oxidation state VII, the highest oxoacid of iodine. Iodine is found in oxidation state VII of periodic acid, which has the highest oxoacid concentration. Periodic acid is a colorless crystalline compound. Periodic acid is a periodate, meaning it can exist in two forms: orthoperiodic acid, whose chemical formula is H5IO6, and metaperiodic acid, whose chemical formula is HIO4. Water and alcohol dissolve periodic acids.
What is Periodic Acid?
Periodic acids are iodine oxides that contain more oxygen than iodic acid and differ in water content, particularly one of the crystalline compounds, HIO4 and H5IO6. Acids containing strongly oxidizing iodine, such as H5IO6 and HIO4, are considered periodic acids.
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Periodic Acid Formula
Periodic acid has the chemical formula HIO4. Iodine is present in the periodic acid, which contains the highest amount of oxoacids of iodine. Oxoacids contain oxygen, hydrogen, and another element. There are three oxygen atoms double-bonded to the central iodine atom in the periodic acid, and one hydroxyl group single-bonded to the central atom in the periodic acid with a + 7 oxidation state.
How do you write the formula of periodic acid?
- First of all, we will explain the chemical compound periodic acid. Periodic acid contains iodine, which is the highest oxoacid of iodine. Oxoacids consist of oxygen, hydrogen, and another element.
- Since the periodic acid is an oxoacid of iodine, iodine has a +7 atomic number .Having an oxidation state means that there are three oxygen atoms double bonded to the central iodine atom and one hydroxyl group single bonded to it.
- Here is the periodic acid structure:
As we can see from the above structure, the +7 oxidation state. Due to the surrounding three double-bonded oxygens, the central iodine atom has an oxidation state of – 2 . Every oxidation state is OH. An oxidation state of -1 for a group. As a result, HIO4 is the formula for the periodic acid.
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Characteristics of Periodic Acid
Below are the few Characterstics of Periodic Acid:
|Molecular weight||191.908 g/mol|
|Chemical Names||Paraperiodic acid,Iodic(VII) acid, Hydrogen periodate|
|Solubility||Soluble in water and alcohols|
|Melting point||128.5 °C|
Applications of Periodic Acid
- It is used extensively in organic chemistry as a potent oxidizing agent. Periodic acid has diverse applications both in science and industry. In a reaction called the Malaprade reaction or oxidative glycol cleavage, it is used to cleave vicinal diols, for instance.
- The Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining technique is particularly valuable in histology and pathology for staining polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.
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Periodic Acid: Overview
- It is a pale yellow solution of hydrogen iodide gas. Iodides are iodine compounds with oxidation state -1, such as hydrogen iodide (HI), sodium iodide (NaI), carbon tetraiodide (CI4), and nitrogen triiodide (NI3).
- Hydrogen iodate, HIO3, can be made by oxidizing I2 in an aqueous solution with chlorine. Iodine, an iodate salt of iodic acid, has three oxygen atoms bound to it.
- The prefix “meta” denotes less water, whereas”ortho” denotes more water. Heating can dehydrate orthoperiodic acid to metaperiodic acid. Periodic acid is a white crystal soluble in water and alcohol and loses water at temperatures above 100 degrees Celsius.
- Periodic acid and its salts (potassium and sodium) have powerful oxidizing properties in organic synthesis.
- As the most iodine-rich oxoacid, periodic acid can be used to analyze the structure of carbohydrates. Periodic acid has the chemical formula is HIO4, and meta-periodic acid has the formula HIO4.
- As with all periodates, orthopedic acid has the chemical formula HIO4. In 1833, Heinrich Gustav Magnus and C.F. Ammermüller discovered periodic acid.
Periodic Acid Formula FAQs
What is the chemical formula of periodic acid?
The chemical formula of periodic acid is H5IO6 for orthoperiodic acid and HIO4 for metaperiodic acid.
What are the common uses of periodic acid in chemistry?
Periodic acid is a strong oxidizing agent in various organic synthesis and laboratory reactions. It's also employed in the preparation of iodic acid and other iodine compounds.
Is periodic acid a stable compound at room temperature?
No, periodic acid is not stable at room temperature. It decomposes, especially when exposed to heat, light, or other reducing agents.
What is the structural difference between orthoperiodic acid and metaperiodic acid?
Orthoperiodic acid has five iodine atoms attached to a central oxygen atom and a tetrahedral structure. Metaperiodic acid has four iodine atoms attached to a central oxygen atom and a planar, square pyramidal structure.
Are there any safety precautions when working with periodic acid?
Yes, handling periodic acid requires caution due to its strong oxidizing properties. It should be stored away from reducing agents, and protective equipment, such as gloves and goggles, should be worn when working with it.