NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter-12
NCERT Solutions For Class 8 History
NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter 12 - India After Independence
Find below NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter 12 - India After Independence prepared by Acardemic team of Physics Wallah. Do follow our NCERT solutions for other subject like NCERT solutions for class 8 Maths and NCERT solutions for class 8 Science.
You are witness to an argument between an adivasi and a person who is opposed to the reservation of seats and jobs. What might be the arguments you heard each of them put forward? Act out the conversation.
Ans. Argument of a person who is opposed to the reservation:
1. Reservation is against the spirit of equality.
2. It checks the chances of admission of more intelligent students in the educational institutions.
3. Reservation in a sort of punishment for present generation of general category, who is not responsible for this miserable socio-economic backwardness.
4. Reservation will provide lesser intelligent teachers, doctors, officials and India will go back or will remain backward country in the era of global competition.
Arguments of Adivasi:
1. We are the real inhabitants of this country.
2. We have been exploited since generations by peoples of plains or outsiders – especially merchants, money-lenders, king mafia, foreign companies, exploiters or greedy employers.
3. We will progress quickly with the help of reservation. Due to reservation we will have more effective voice in legislature and in the parliament of the country. We will be in better form to compel the authorities of the country to listen our grievance.
Q.1. Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced?
Ans. Three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced were:
a. As a result of partition, eight million refugees had come into the country from what was now Pakistan. These people had to be found homes and jobs.
b. Second, was the problem of the princely states, almost 500 of them, each ruled by a Maharaja or a Nawab, each of them had to be persuaded to join the new nation.
c. In the longer term, the new nation had to adopt a political system that would best serve the hopes and expectations of its population.
Q.2. What was the role of the Planning Commission?
Ans. The government set up the Planning Commission in 1850 for economic development of the country. The main role of the Planning Commission was to Prepare a Plan for the ‘most effective and balanced utilization of the country’s resources’. The Planning Commission was to decide – which industries should be initiated by the state and which by the market, how to achieve a balance between the different regions and states.
Q.3. Fill in the blanks:
a. Subjects that were placed on the Union List were ____, ______and ______.
b. Subjects on the Concurrent List were ____ and ____.
c. Economic Planning by which both the state and private sector played a role in development was called a ____model.
d. The death of ______sparked off such violent protest that the government was forced to give into the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.
a. taxes, defense, foreign affairs.
b. forests, agriculture.
c. mixed economy.
d. Potti Sriramulu.
Q.4. State whether true or false:
a. At independence the majority of Indians lived in villages.
b. The constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress Party.
c. In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.
d. The Second Five Years Plan focused on the development of heavy industry.
Ans. (a) True, (b) False, (c) False, (d) True
Q.5. What did Dr. Ambedkar mean when “he said that in politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?
Ans. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee pointed out that political equality would have to be accompanied by social and economic equality. He meant that introducing one man one vote will lead to political equality, however in our social and economic structure continue to demy the principle of one man one value.
Q.6. After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
Ans. There was a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines because:
a. India had been divided on the basis of religion. Despite the wishes and efforts of Mahatma Gandhi, freedom had to come not to one nation but to two. More than one million people had been killed in riots between Hindus and Muslims. And the country could not afford further divisions on the basis of language.
b. Both Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Vallabh Bhai Patel were against the creation of linguistic states. They believed that it was time to keep India strong and united.
Q.7. Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after independence.
Ans. English continued to be used in India after independence because:
a. Though Hindu was chosen as the national language the use of Hindi was not accepted by the other regions especially the south.
b. The leaders felt the need for a common language that would link people of different regions.
Q. 8. How was the economic development of India visualized in the early decades after Independence?
Ans.a. In 1950, the government set up a Planning Commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development.
b. The main stress in the First Five Year Plan (1951-1956) was on agricultural development.
c. The Second First Five Year Plan was formulated in 1956. This focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such as iron and steel and on the building of large dams.
d. After independence, a number of steps were taken by the government to make the balanced growth of all regions of country.
e. The development of regions or states have not been same due to multiple kinds of variations and diversities, ethnic divisions, social customs, cultural patterns and religions.
Q.9. Who was Mira Bhen was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi. She was greatly impressed by the ideals, philosophy and ways of working of Gandhiji.
Mira Bhen worked against caste discrimination, untouchability, in favour of human equality and rights. She emphasized the development of agriculture, cottage industries and education.
Mira Bhen emphasized on studying nature’s balance and developed our lives within her laws, as if we are to survive as a physically healthy and morally decent species.
Q. 10. Find out more about the language divisions in Pakistan that led to the creation of new nation of Bangladesh. How did Bangladesh achieve independence from Pakistan?
Ans.a. There are many languages spoken and used in Pakistan Urdu, Persian, Punjabi, Bangla, Pashto, English, Sindhi etc., are main among them.
b. After Partition of India on 14th August, 1947, there were two main geographical divisions of Pakistan –West Pakistan (today’s Pakistan) and East Pakistan (today’s Bangladesh).
c. Bangladesh (East Pakistan) broke up from Pakistan and emerged as independent Bangladesh in 1971 after a bloody war. India helped the people of Bangladesh to achieve their freedom.