The cell components are made up of some basic molecules which help in complex interactions and perform a variety of functions.
According to Linus Pauling ‘Life exists due to the interaction of various biomolecules and is not the property of a single molecule.
The collection or sum total of different types of biomolecules, compounds and ions present in a cell is called cellular pool.
C, H, O, N are four major / principal elements which form about 95% of cellular materials and are called big four elements. C-18%, , O-65%, H-10%, N-2.5%. C, H and O form 93% of the total cellular materials and are called Framework elements.
Cellular pool consists of inorganic materials and organic compounds.
Simpler organic molecules often associate to form larger molecule, known as polymers, in which monomer units are joined by a chemical process known as condensation, by removal of water.
There are three important types of macromolecule in Biology, namely Polysaccharides, Proteins and Nucleic acids and their constitutent monomers are Monosaccharides, Amino acids and Nucleotides respectively.
Macromolecules account for over 90% of the dry mass of cells. Polysaccharides tend to be used for food storage or structural purposes, whereas nucleic acids and proteins can be regarded as ‘informational’ molecules.