Note that while filling electrons in various orbitals they are filled according to the three laws – Aufbau, Pauli and Hund’s. For removing electrons to form cations, electrons are removed from outermost shell as they are bound to the nucleus by lesser forces of attraction because of shielding effect. For example, for copper.For More Chemistry Formulas check out Main page of Physcis Wallah.
29Cu- 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10, 4s1
Cu+- 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10
Cu2- 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d9
Copper has been known to mankind from prehistoric times. It was alloyed with other metals and the use of bronze in Egypt is reported as early as 350 B.C. Romans and Greeks obtained this metal from the island of Cyprus from which the name ‘cuprum’ was derived.Occurrence: Copper constitutes only 0.0001 per cent of the earth’s crust. Its deposits, however, are concentrated. Copper is found in nature in the following forms.
Cuprite (red), Cu2O
Basic Carbonates of Copper
Copper is found to a very minute extent in the animal body where it is said to catalyse the action of iron in the formation of haemoglobin. It is present in traces in the cereals and potatoes. It occurs as a red colouring matter of the feathers of certain birds. Milk has a very low copper content.
India is not rich in copper ores. Copper is found in India mainly in Singhbhum district (Bihar), Matigara and Dharwar. The copper belt in Rajasthan (Khetri) is at present under extensive development.
Copper may be extracted by different methods depending upon the nature of the ore and the % of copper. The methods may be divided into two categories.
1. From sulphide ores :