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The word Organic is one of the most overused in the English language.
People use it as a derogatory term in phrases like Don’t eat that; it’s not organic. Of course, there is a precise scientific definition of the word. In science, organic can be a biological or chemical term. In Biology it mean any thing that is living or has lived. The opposite is Non-Organic. In Chemistry, an organic compound is one containing Carbon atoms. The opposite term is Inorganic.
Organic compounds cannot be synthesized in the laboratory because they require the presence of a mysterious force (called vital force) which exists only in the living organisms.
Wholer’s synthesis: When ammonium cyanate, obtained by double decomposition of ammonium chloride and potassium cyanate is heated, urea is formed. After this synthesis vital force theory was rejected.
NH4Cl + KCNO NH4CNO + KCl ; NH4CNO NH2CONH2
Electronegativity and strength of bonds: The electronegativity of carbon is close to a number of other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine, oxygen. As a result, carbon forms strong covalent bonds with these elements as well. Tendency to form multiple bonds: Because of its small size, carbon has a strong tendency to form multiple (double and triple) bonds with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms.
Isomerism: Many organic compounds show the phenomenon of isomerism by virtue of which a single molecular formula may represent two or more structures.
NCERT solutions for class 9 Science prepared by Physics Wallah will help you to solve your NCERT text book exercise.