Acetylene Formula: Preparation, Properties and Structure

Acetylene formula C2H2. It is a highly flammable and colorless gas .It is the simplest member of the alkyne chemical family.

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The structure and acetylene Formula, also known as ethyne. The chemical and structural formulas are given and explained in the following paragraphs. Acetylene is the simplest alkyne and is a hydrocarbon. Acetylene has two carbon atoms bound together by a triple bond, making it an unsaturated compound.

Acetylene Chemical Formula

Acetylene, also known as ethylene, is the simplest alkyne and hydrocarbon. Its chemical formula, C2H2, indicates that it contains carbon and hydrogen in a triple bond. This unsaturated compound is commonly used as a fuel and serves as a base for various other chemical compounds. Although pure acetylene is colorless and odorless, for practical purposes, it is often stored in liquid form due to handling difficulties.

Also Read : Acetone Formula

The formula for acetylene with an extended formula of CHΞCH and a molar mass of 26.04 g mol-1. As the simplest alkyne, it contains triple bonds and is classified as a linear molecule (180 ºC). Its carbon atoms are hybridized sp, with two sp orbitals each; one bound to a hydrogen atom and the other forming a single bond with the other carbon atom. The remaining double bond, made up of two Π bonds, is created by four P orbitals without hybridization, which are perpendicular to the linear system. Common organic molecule representations can be used to depict its chemical structure.

Acetylene Formula

Formula of Ethyne 

The ethyne formula includes both its chemical and structural representations, with the chemical name being C2H2. This name suggests that it is the simplest hydrocarbon, also known as an alkyne. Its unique characteristic is a triple bond between two carbon atoms, as shown in the ethene structural formula. This bond has a straight conformation at 180 degrees. The angle between the carbon atoms in this formula indicates their bond angle. The official IUPAC name for this compound is acetylene or ethyne.

Preparation of Acetylene (Ethyne)

  • Different preparative techniques can generate acetylene and is sometimes produced as a secondary result. 
  • In the past, it was a by-product of ethylene production via hydrocarbon cracking. 
  • The methods for producing acetylene include partial combustion of methane, refining during ethylene production, and hydrolysis of chemical carbide. 
  • It can also be created through the dehydrohalogenation of alkyl dihalides or vicinal dihalides.

Chemical Properties 

The chemical properties of acetylene include the acetylene formula, molecular weight, bond angle, the reactions of the compound, the molecular mass of the compound, and the empirical formula of acetylene. Acetylene has the following chemical properties that give insight into its reactions, which provide insight into its chemical properties.

  • C2H2 is the formula for acetylene or its empirical formula
  • It has a molecular weight of 26.04 g/mol.
  • There are no hydrogen bonds between donors and acceptors
  • Rotatable bonds are not present.
  • The triple bond in the structural formula of ethyne indicates that they are unsaturated organic compounds.
  • 180 degrees is the bond angle.
  • Symmetrical compounds are chemical compounds.

Physical Properties Of Acetylene Formula

As defined by the molecular formula of acetylene, the physical properties of organic compounds are defined. An organic compound’s physical properties include its melting point, boiling point, density, appearance, and crystal structure. The following are some of the physical properties.

  • At 760 mm Hg, the boiling point of the compound is -119 °F or -84.7 °C
  • Gaseous organic compounds are generally found (pure)
  • Gases such as acetylene are colourless
  • The pure form of the compound has no smell, whereas the liquid form has a faint ether scent.
  • As acetylene cannot exist in liquid form under natural atmospheric pressure, it has no melting point.
  • At a minimum atmospheric pressure of 1.27atm, the melting point is 80.8°C.
  • The compound is soluble in water, ethanol, carbon disulfide, acetone, benzene, and chloroform.
  • Based on the ethyne molecular formula, the compound has a linear structure. Acetylene has a density of 1.1772 grams per liter or 1.1772 kilograms per cubic meter.

Acetylene Formula Uses

In addition to being used in fuels for a long time, acetylene is reportedly used in explosives. Here are some uses of acetylene.

  • It is used in welding.
  • Used in portable lighting. 
  • Plastics and acrylic acid derivatives are made from it.
  • Used in Radiocarbon dating 
  • The first natural semiconductor, polyacetylene, is produced from it.

Acetylene Formula FAQs

What is the chemical formula of acetylene?

The chemical formula of acetylene is C2H2.

What is the common name for acetylene?

Acetylene is commonly known as ethyne.

How is acetylene used in industry?

Due to its high flame temperature, acetylene is used as a fuel gas in welding and cutting torches. It's also a precursor in the synthesis of various organic chemicals.

Is acetylene highly flammable?

Yes, acetylene is highly flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air when not handled properly. It's usually stored and transported dissolved in acetone within specialized cylinders to reduce its explosive potential.

What is the structure of the acetylene molecule?

The acetylene molecule consists of two carbon atoms triple-bonded to each other (C≡C) and each bonded to a single hydrogen atom (H-C≡C-H). This linear structure gives acetylene its unique properties.

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