Maths formulas for class 10 chapter- Polynomials Formula
A polynomial is an algebraic expression in which the variables have non-integral exponents only.
Example- 3x2+ 4y + 2, 5x3+ 3x2 + 4x +2
Degree of a Polynomial
For a polynomial in one variable - The highest exponent on the variable in a polynomial is the degree of the polynomial.
Example: The degree of the polynomial x2+3x+4 is 3, as the highest power of x in the given expression is x2.
Types of Polynomials
- Number of terms
- Degree of the polynomial.
Types of Polynomials are based on the Number of terms:
- Monomial Polynomial– A polynomial with one term. Example: 3x, 8x2, 11xy
- Binomial – A polynomial that has two terms. Example: 6x2+x, 3x+4
- Trinomial – A polynomial that has three terms. Example: x2+4x+4
Types of Polynomials are based on the Degree of the Polynomial:
- Linear Polynomial- It is a polynomial of degree 1. It is of the form ax+ b where a & b are real numbers and a is not equal to 0.
- Quadratic Polynomial- It is a polynomial of degree 2. It is one of the form ax2+ bx + c where a, b & c are real numbers and a is not equal to 0.
- Cubic Polynomial- It is a polynomial of degree 3. It is one of the form ax3+ bx2 + cx+ d where a, b & c are real numbers and a is not equal to 0.
Zeroes or roots of a polynomial
It is that value of a variable at which polynomial P(x) becomes zero.
Ex. if polynomial P(x) = x3-6x2+11x-6, Putting x = 1 one get P(1) = 0 then 1 is a zero of polynomial P(x).
- 0 may be a zero of a polynomial
- Linear polynomial can have at most one zero
- Quadratic polynomial can have at most two zeroes
- Cubic polynomial can have at most three zeroes
Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial
- The zeroes of a polynomial p(x) are the x-coordinates of the points, where the graph of y = p(x) intersects the x-axis.
- Number of zeroes of a polynomial is the number of times the graph intersects the x-axis.
Relationship between Zeroes and Coefficients of a Polynomial
The division algorithm states that for any given polynomial p(x) and any non-zero polynomial g(x) there are polynomial q(x) are r(x) such that
p(x) = g(x) × q(x) + r(x)
Dividend = Divisor × Quotient + Remainder
Where r(x) = 0 or degree r(x) < degree g(x)
Number of Zeroes
A polynomial of degree n has at most n zeros.
- A linear polynomial has one zero,
- A quadratic polynomial has two zeros.
- A cubic polynomial has three zeros.
Factorisation of Polynomials
Quadratic polynomials can be factorized by splitting the middle term.
For example, consider the polynomial 2x2−5x+3
Splitting the middle term
The middle term in the polynomial is -5x
Sum = -5
Product = 6
Now, -5 can be expressed as (-2) + (-3) and -2 x -3 = 6
Putting the above value in the gven expression
2x2−5x+3 = 2x2−2x−3x+3
Identify the common factor
2x2−2x−3x+3 = 2x(x−1)−3(x−1)
Taking (x−1) as the common factor, this can be expressed as:
Identities of Algebra
- (a+b)2 = a2+2ab+b2
- (x+a)(x+b) = x2+(a+b)x+ab
- a2−b2 = (a+b)(a−b)
- a3−b3 = (a−b)(a2+ab+b2)
- a3+b3 = (a+b)(a2−ab+b2)
- (a+b)3 = a3+3a2b+3ab2+b3
- (a−b)3 = a3−3a2b+3ab2−b3
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