The branch of chemistry which deals with the relationship between chemical energy and electrical energy and how one can be converted into another is known as electrochemistry.
The flow of electric current through an electrolytic solution is called electrolytic conduction.
Those electrolytes which do not ionise completely in aqueous solution or in molten state are called weak electrolytes. e.g., H2CO3 (carbonic acid), H3BO3 (Boric acid), HCN (hydrocyanic acid), CH3COOH (acetic acid), CHCl2COOH (dichloroacetic acid), HgCl2 (Mercuric chloride), etc. They have small degree of ionisation.
Those electrolytes which dissociate completely into ions are called strong electrolytes, e.t., NaCl, HCl, NaOH etc.
It is the ratio of number of ions produced to the total number of molecules of electrolyte.
The strength of current (I) flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference (V) applied across the conductor and inversely proportional to resistance (R) of the conductor.
Mathematically, I = V/R
The ease with which current flows through a conductor is called its conductance. It is reciprocal of the resistance. C = 1/R. The unit of conductance is Siemens, S (i.e., 1S = 1 ohm–1 = 1Ω-1).
If a solution is placed between two parallel electrodes having cross-sectional area ‘A’ and distance l apart, then
where ρ is resitivity.
It is the reciprocal of specific resistivity of an electrolytic solution. It is denoted by Κ(kappa) and its unit is ohm–1 cm–1 or S cm–1. If A is expressed in m2, l in m and ‘R’ in ohm (Ω) , then unit of Κ is ohm–1 or S m–1.
Κ = C x l/A, Where C is conductance of solution
The conductivity of solution of different electrolytes in the same solvent and at a given temperature difference due to the difference in charge and size of the ions in which they dissociate, the concentration of ions or ease with which the ions move under potential gradient.
It is defined as the conducting power of al the ions produced by one gram mole of an electrolyte in a solution. It is denoted by Λm.
Where 'Κ' is electrolytic conductivity of solution and ‘C’ is concentration of the solution expressed in mol L–1 (or mol dm–3). The unit of is ohm–1 cm2 mol–1 or S cm2 mol–1.
1 S m2 mol–1 = 104 S cm2 mol1 Or 1 S cm2 mol–1 = 10–4 S m2 mol–1
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