NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology
Biology, in general, can seem very easy. Many times student can be stuck up to many critical concepts. To resolve this issue Physics Wallah has come up with NCERT solutions for class 12 biology for students. The complete set of NCERT Solutions offered is as per NCERT guidelines only. Since class 12th is already an advance stage of biology. NCERT Solutions for class 12 biology prepared by the team is to ensure every student score maximum marks.
These solutions are as per the latest NCERT guidelines only. The complete line up of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology ensure students easy understanding of the topic. This solution in overall expand student’s logical thinking horizon.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapters (Updated 2022-23)
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Free PDF Download
Chapter- 1 Reproduction in Organisms
The Reproduction in Organisms chapter explains how different organisms are able to reproduce. Reproduction is an important biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones similar to itself. There are two types of reproduction. When offspring are produced by one parent with or without participation in gamete formation, reproduction is asexual. When two parents (opposite sexes) participate in the reproductive process and involve the fusion of female and male gametes, it is called sexual reproduction. These concepts are explained in detail with the help of relevant diagrams and suitable examples.
Chapter- 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants also explains the morphology, structure and the processes of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. It also elaborates on subtopics such as pre-fertilisation: Structure and Events, Double fertilisation, Post fertilisation: Structure and Events, Apomixis and Polyembryony.
Chapter- 3 Human Reproduction
The reproductive system in humans includes the formation of gametes (gametogenesis), i.e., sperm in males and ovum in females. People reach sexual maturity after reaching a certain age - this is called puberty. There are remarkable differences between the reproductive phenomena of males and females. In this chapter, you will discuss about the male and female reproductive systems in humans. Subtopics in this chapter are the male reproductive system, female reproductive system, gametogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilization and implantation, pregnancy and embryonic development, parturition, and lactation.
Chapter- 4 Reproductive Health
In the previous chapter, you have discussed about the human reproductive system and its functions. This chapter discusses a closely related topic - reproductive health. The term means healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), reproductive health means overall well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioral, and social. It covers sub-topics such as Reproductive Health - Issues and Strategies, Population Explosion and Contraception, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, and Infertility.
Chapter- 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Genetics deals with inheritance and changes in characters from parents to offspring. Inheritance is that process by which traits are passed from parent to offspring; it is the basis of heredity. Variation is the degree to which offspring differ from their parents. The chapter covers sub-topics like Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter- 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
In the previous chapter, you have discussed about inheritance patterns and the genetic basis of these patterns. At the time of Mendel, the nature of those "factors" regulating the inheritance pattern was unclear. In the upcoming hundred years, the nature of the putative genetic material was investigated, culminating in the discovery that DNA—deoxyribonucleic acid—is the genetic material, at least for most organisms. In class XI, you learned that nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. It also includes subtopics such as DNA, Finding Genetic Material, The World of RNA, Replication, Transcription, The Genetic Code, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression, The Human Genome Project, and DNA Fingerprinting.
Chapter- 7 Evolution
Evolutionary Biology is the branch of the history of life forms on earth. It covers subtopics such as Origin of life; biological evolution, and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Chapter- 8 Human Health and Diseases
For a long time, health was considered a state of mind and body where there was a balance of certain humors. Health is affected by – (i) genetic disorders – deficiencies with which a child is born and deficiencies/defects that a child inherits from parents from birth; (ii) infections and (iii) lifestyle including the food and water we take, the rest and exercise we give our bodies, the habits we have or lack, etc. The chapter also covers sub-topics such as Pathogens; parasites are causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter- 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
With an ever-increasing world population, increasing food production is a major necessity. Biological principles applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding play a major role in our efforts to increase food production. Several new techniques, such as embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques, will play a key role in further increasing food production. The subtopics explained in this chapter are Animal Husbandry, Plant Breeding, Single Cell Proteins, and Tissue Cultures.
Chapter- 10 Microbes in Human Welfare
Besides macroscopic animals and plants, microbes are the main components of biological systems on this earth. You studied the diversity of living organisms in class XI. Microbes are diverse—protozoa, bacteria, fungi, microscopic animal and plant viruses, viroids, and prions- proteinaceous infectious agents. Microbes such as bacteria and many fungi can be grown on culture media to form colonies that can be seen with the naked eye. Such cultures are helpful in studies on microorganisms. Several subtopics are Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers—antibiotics; production, and judicious use.
Chapter- 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Biotechnology deals with the technique of using enzymes or living organisms from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans. European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) has defined biotechnology as including both the traditional view and modern molecular biotechnology. The definition provided by the EFB is as follows: "The integration of natural sciences and organisms, cells, their parts and molecular analogs for products and services." Some subtopics covered in the chapter are Principles of Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology Tools, and Recombinant DNA Technology Processes.
Chapter- 12 Biotechnology: and its Application
As you learned from the previous chapter, Biotechnology deals with the industrial production of biopharmaceuticals and biological substances using genetically modified microbes, fungi, plants, and animals. Biotechnology applications include therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed foods, bioremediation, waste treatment, and energy production. This chapter also includes topics such as the Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy, genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents.
Chapter- 13 Organisms and Populations
You already learned in previous lessons that ecology is a subject that studies interactions among organisms and between an organism and its physical (abiotic) environment. Ecology concerns four levels of biological organization – organisms, populations, communities, and biomes. In this chapter, we examine ecology at the organismal and population levels. It also includes subtopics such as Population interactions – mutualism, predation, competition, parasitism; population attributes – birth rate, growth, death rate, and age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Abiotic Factors, Responses to Abiotic Factors, Adaptations).
Chapter- 14 Ecosystem
An ecosystem can be viewed as a functional unit of nature where living organisms interact with each other and the surrounding physical environment. In this chapter, we first look at ecosystem structure to appreciate input (productivity), energy transfer (food chain/web, nutrient cycling), and output (degradation and energy losses). We will also discuss about the relationships – chains, cycles, webs – that arise from these energy flows in the system and how they relate to each other. It includes subtopics such as ecosystem - structure and function, productivity, decomposition, energy flow, ecological pyramids, ecological succession, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem services.
Chapter- 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity and conservation consist of topics like Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecological diversity, Different types of species, Patterns of diversity, Biodiversity loss, Biodiversity conservation, etc. Biodiversity conservation can be in situ or ex-situ. As part of in situ conservation, endangered species are protected in their natural environment, so the entire ecosystem is protected. Ex situ conservation methods include protective maintenance of endangered species in zoos and botanical gardens, in vitro fertilization, tissue culture propagation, and cryopreservation of gametes. Topics covered in these chapters are:
- Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance.
- Loss of biodiversity.
- Biodiversity conservation.
- Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites.
Chapter- 16 Environmental Issues
Human population size has increased enormously over the past hundred years. This means increased demand for food, water, household, electricity, roads, automobiles, and many other commodities. A pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological properties of air, soil, water, or soil. Agents that cause such an undesirable change are called pollutants. Students will study other subtopics in this chapter: Air Pollution and its Control, Water Pollution and its Control, Solid Wastes, Agrochemicals, and their Effects, Radioactive Wastes, Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance, Deforestation.
Several important concepts, such as reproduction, evolution, inheritance, food production, biotechnology, ecosystem, and biodiversity, are explained in-depth. The concepts have also been updated per the latest syllabus prescribed by the CBSE board.
CBSE Marking Scheme 2022-23
|VI||Reproduction: Chapter – 2, 3 and 4||16|
|VII||Genetics and Evolution: Chapter – 5, 6 and 7||20|
|VIII||Biology and Human Welfare: Chapter – 8 and 10||12|
|IX||Biotechnology and its Applications: Chapter – 11 and 12||12|
|X||Ecology and Environment: Chapter – 13, 14 and 15||10|
Why NCERT Textbook of Class 12 Biology are important?
A structure of the solution is such that they can be easily understood by numerous students. Too many students biology is very typical of it comprises the complete theory. An effect line up prepared by the team at Physics Wallah helps students to study biology with interests.
Since competitive exams are the next target for many students after class 12th. These NCERT solutions for class 12 biology are highly effective for students looking forward to securing their seats in prominent colleges. Any competitive exams can be aced with these NCERT solutions for class 12 biology provided byPhysics Wallah. Our team involved in drafting solution for students have already aced most of the competitive exams. It is crucial to have in-depth knowledge of each and every critical concept.
The solutions offered by Physics Wallah offers students a competitive edge to students among all. Our faculties are round the clock available to provide any desired assistance to students. Many a time’s students get stuck to critical topics. The NCERT solutions for class 12 biology have always been the topmost preference of toppers.
How to Study Class 12 biology effectively?
These topics can hinder the smooth flow of students learning. Biology of class 12th comprises of such a wide syllabus, which makes easy completion of syllabus. While preparing these NCERT solutions for class 12 biology, our team have gone through numerous among of question papers. The complete line up of solution has been kept in accordance to create an easy learning environment.
In case of any kind of assistance required, students can let our experts know with any type of issues they are facing. At Physics Wallah we endorse stress-free learning. We also provide our students with a strategy in NCERT solutions for class 12 biology to each understand each and every concept effectively.
Why Physics Wallah is best for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 biology?
The team at Physics Wallah believes in providing accessible education to the needy. The complete set of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology has been provided on the website of Physics Wallah. Students can easily download it with a single click by signing up with us. The solution provided is in pdf format.
This helps students to access the study material from any device. The study from the notes of most preferred faculty nationwide. Through command over biology students can attain topmost goals
How to score good marks in Class 12th Board
- In 3 marks and 5 marks questions, always make the relevant diagram even if it is not mentioned.
- Read the question carefully and give to-the-point answer.
- While differentiating terms, always write the important differences in the form of columns.
- Never repeat the same points in a different way.
- Practice even the diagrams before the exam.
Key Benefit for NCERT Solutions for Class 12
Preparing for class 12 biology and NEET entrance exam need NCERT as a mandatory book. The key benefit for NCERT solutions class 12 biology and NCERT text book for class 12 biology are.
- Easy to read language is very good to understand the concept.
- All concepts are explained through very good examples and diagram
- Multicolur presentation for biology help students to memories the diagram and concept
- Adequate number of examples help you to have more clarity in the class 12 biology
- Questions given in NCERT text book exercise is sufficient to have solid foundation for class 12 biology
- CBSE prefer NCERT text book , all most all questions are directly from NCERT in class 12 board exam
- NTA conducting NEET and recommended book for NEET is NCERT in year 2019 almost 85% question asked are directly from NCERT.
Why Physics Wallah
Academic team of Physics Wallah prepared all required resource which is required for class 12 Biology which includes detail chapter wise theory for class 12 Biology, Notes on class 12 botany, objective questions for class 12 Biology, chapter wise online test for class 12 Biology, formula for class 12 Biology.
One must read the NCERT textbook for class 12 Biology and can use as a reference for ncert solution for class 12 Biology. For entrance exam like JEE & NEET Physics Wallah consist of all useful material start from previous year papers, sample papers, important formula for Biology, revision notes for class 12 Biology.
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)
Q1. How NCERT textbook help me to score good marks in CBSE board class 12 Biology?
Ans. CBSE board recommended and prescribe book for class 12 Biology is NCERT textbook. The NCERT textbook is prepared as per the latest syllabus of CBSE and perfect textbook for all aspirants who are preparing for the CBSE class 12 board exam. To score good marks in the CBSE class 12 Biology NCERT textbook is mandatory and one must complete this textbook thoroughly.
Scoring good marks in class 12 Biology need the right strategy which starts with proper planning to complete the syllabus before two months of the final exam date. In last two-month complete revision will help you to score good marks in class 12 Biology.
Q2. How to use NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology effectively?
Ans. NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology prepared by an academic team of Physics Wallah with this vision that it must be used for reference purposes only. Never copy NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology. The best way to use these solutions is to read the chapter carefully and try to solve all questions by yourself if you face any problem to find out the answer to a particular question refer to the textbook. Still unable to get the answer now you can use NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology.
Q3. Should we need to solve additional MCQ based questions apart from NCERT exercise?
Ans. Yes, the best part of MCQ is it helps you to find the mistake and helps to build conceptual clarity in all parts of chapters. NCERT textbook for class 12 Biology consists of enough questions for your CBSE board still if you are preparing for NEET or any other competitive entrance exam then you need to solve few additional MCQ based questions form available reference books.
Q4. What are the important chapters of class 12 biology?
Ans. Class 12 Biology consists of two parts one is zoology and the second is botany. Both parts are equally important for the CBSE board exam. One must read and make notes of all chapters and few topics are a bit more important such as Reproduction, Genetics, Human welfare, Biotechnology, and Ecology.
Q5. Are NCERT class 12 Biology textbook is enough for CBSE board and entrance exam?
Ans. Yes class 12 NCERT textbook is more than sufficient for CBSE board as well as for competitive entrance exam. While reading the textbook make sure you are preparing the notes of the chapter and add all-important points and diagrams on your notes. Do solve previous year CBSE questions paper uploaded by Physics Wallah at the previous year section.
- chapter 1-Reproduction In Organisms
- chapter 2-Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants
- chapter 3-Human Reproduction
- chapter 4-Reproductive Health
- chapter 5-Principles Of Inheritance And Variation
- chapter 6-Molecular Basis Of Inheritance
- chapter 7-Evolution
- chapter 8-Human Health And Disease
- chapter 9-Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production
- chapter 10-Microbes In Human Welfare
- chapter 11-Biotechnology And Principles And Processes
- chapter 12-Biotechnology And Its Applications
- chapter 13-Organisms And Populations
- chapter 14-Ecosystem
- chapter 15-Biodiversity And Conservation
- chapter 16-Environmental Issues