NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History chapter-6 Work Life and Leisure
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science (History)
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 6 Work, Life and Leisure
NCERT Solutions for class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Work, Life and Leisure is prepared by senior and renown teachers of Physics Wallah primary focus while solving science questions of class 10 is NCERT textbook, Also do read theory of this Chapter before solving the Questions. We have prepared all Solutions of Chapter-6.
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1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
Solution : The Population of London expanded from the middle of the 18th century and within 70 years (1810-1880) it increased fourfold from 1 million to about 4 million.
Reasons: a. The most important reason is migration from the rural areas. The open fields disappeared and the introduction of new technology in farming increased unemployment in rural areas. London started attracting these rural.
b. London did not have large industries. But Apart from London dockyard, five major types of industries which attracted migrants were clothing and foot ware, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing stationery and precision products such as surgical instruments, watches, and objects of precious metal.
c. During the first world war, London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods and the number of large factories increased until they accounted for nearly one-third of all jobs in the city.
This increased the number of large factories, which in turn increased the number of people coming to the city in search of work.
2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
(i) In the 18th and 19th centuries, a large number of women were employed in the factories because during that period, most of the production activities were carried out with the help of the family.
(ii) With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and were forced to engage in household activities. According to the 1861 Census, nearly a quarter million women worked as domestic servants in London, most of them were from migrant families.
(iii) Many women increased their family income by taking lodgers or paying guests. Some of them earned their living through tailoring, washing or matchbox making.
(iv) However, in the 20th century, women again started getting employed in wartime industries and offices because most of the male citizens were busy fighting at the front and women were forced to withdrew from domestic service.
3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with historical examples.
a) A private landlord
b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
c) A leader of a political party
• Increasing density of the population demanded more land leading to increase in the price of land and increase in rents. The existence of a large urban population meant that there would be many people requiring a place to stay.
• Individual landowners put up cheap, and usually unsafe tenements for the new migrants.The increased demand for places to stay was profitable for private landlords who could rent out rooms at high rates.
• The vast mass of one-room houses occupied by the poor was seen in London.
• In cities like Bombay the multistory structures by private landlords like ‘Chawls’ grew in numbers.
• The existence of a large urban population will cause more crimes, social conflict and rebellion. Police are responsible for maintaining law and order, Hence a police Superintendent would definitely have increased work on his/her hands to maintain law and order.
The police had to control petty ‘criminals’ like who lived on stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, cloths kept for drying.
• There were some skilled in their trade like cheats and tricksters, picketers and thieves.
• To discipline these people by imposing high penalties for criminal offered work to ‘deserving poor’.
• Policemen had to work overnight to control crime during night as crimes increased at night time.
• The existence of a large urban population causes many social problems, such as problems of housing, food, water, etc. These issues become political issues when they are taken up by political parties.
• Responsibility of a political leader increased as it had more people voting for him.
• A political party and its leaders can mobilize the masses to support them in these political causes.
• in the 19th century London saw riots by the poor demanding relief from severe conditions of poverty and then dock workers also and so the politicians became very active.
4. Give explanations for the following :
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century?
• Well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century for the following reasons:
• one-room houses of the poor came to be seen as the breeding ground of diseases, and hence it became a threat to public health.
• Fire hazards became a worry in these over-crowded, badly ventilated and unhygienic houses.
• There was a widespread fear of social disorder especially after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Housing schemes were undertaken to avoid a rebellion by the poor.
• They supported it to relocate in new localities which would reduce pollution and improve the landscape of the city.
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants?
• Bombay became an attractive destination for people seeking jobs after the British administration replaced Surat with Bombay as its principal western port.
• The consequent increase in trade and industries led to a great influx of people. Thus, migrants were (and still are) an important facet of Bombay.
• Most of the people in the film industry were migrants from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras contributing to national character of film industry.
• They wanted to portray the plight of lower class of people through films. Thus, a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
• Thus Bombay films have contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as a blend of dream and reality of slums and star bungalows.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century?
• In mid-seventeenth century, Bombay became East India Company’s principal western port, replacing Surat.
• Later, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had become an important administrative center as it became capital of Bombay presidency in 1819,after the Maratha defeat in Anglo-Maratha war.
• With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders and bankers, as well as artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.
• The establishment of textile mills led to a fresh surge in migration.
• It developed as an industrial center. All through these years, the prospects for trade and commerce, and employment kept increasing, thereby making Bombay an attractive destination for migrants.
• Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India and was also a junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.
1. What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people.
Solution : There were many forms of entertainment that came up in the nineteenth century in England.
• For the upper classes, an annual “London Season” comprised of opera, the theatre and classical music events was one of the sources of leisure.
• For the working classes having a drink in pubs, discussions and meetings for political action served the same purpose.
• Libraries, art galleries and museums were new types of entertainment brought about through the utilization of state money.
• Music halls and cinema theatres too became immensely popular with the lower classes.
• Industrial workers were encouraged to undertake seaside vacations to rejuvenate from the bans of working in the polluting environment of factories and to derive the benefits of the sun and bracing winds.
2. Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why was the development of the Underground criticized?
Social Changes -
• London was getting congested due to the flow of migrants causing an increase in slums as well as pollution.
• The development of suburbs as a part of the drive to decongest London led to the extension of the city beyond the range where people could walk to work.
• Though these suburbs had been built, the people could not be persuaded to leave the city and stay far away from their places of work in the absence of some form of public transport.
• The Underground railway was constructed to solve this housing problem.
It was criticized initially because:
• Initially people were afraid to travel underground. A newspaper reported the danger to health and asphyxiation (lack of air) and heat.
• It was referred to as iron monsters, which added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city.
• A large amount of poor was displaced, many houses were destroyed and poor were displaced from London.
3. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.
Solution : Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the rebuilding of the Paris with vigour, under the chief architect Baron Haussmann in the mid-nineteenth century.
It involved the forcible reconstruction of cities to enhance their beauty and impose order. The poor were evicted from the center of Paris to reduce the possibility of political rebellion and to beautify the city. Straight, broad avenues or boulevards and open spaces were designed, and full grown trees transplanted. Policemen were employed, night patrols begun and bus shelters and tap water introduced.
4. To what extent do government regulation and new laws solve problems of pollution?
Solution : Government laws play an important role in controlling the rates of pollution in a city. However, simply passing laws is not enough. They need to be properly enforced as well. It is also a fact that people tend to find ways of getting around laws
So, apart from legislation, the government also needs to carry out intensive public awareness programmes aimed at educating the public about the need and ways of controlling pollution; and about how they too have a stake in environmental governance.
If people take the initiative and begin campaigns, problem of pollution can be solved in a better way and easily.
5. Discuss one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
(a) Public Life
Success : In 1920, the rice mills of Tollygunge began to burn rice husk instead of coal leading residents to complain that the air is filled up with black soot which falls like drizzling rain from morning till night and it has become impossible to live. The inspectors of Bengal smoke Nuisance Commission managed to control the industrial smoke.
(b) Private Life :
Failure : The availability of one-room tenements and no housing facilities for a major part of the industrial revolution time period caused the family to get divided into smaller units. There were even cases where rural people had to leave their families behind and live alone in the urban areas where they worked.
Success : British administrative officials built houses in new suburbs for fulfilling the housing needs of the working classes.
Chapter Wise NCERT Solutions of Class-10 Social Science (History)
Aditional Resource Notes For Class-10
Notes on Physics for class-10 Science
Notes on chemistry for class-10 Science
Notes on Biology for class-10 Science
Notes on Mathematics for class-10
- chapter-1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
- chapter-2 The Nationalist Movement in Indo China
- chapter-3 Nationalism in India
- chapter-4 The Making of a Global World
- chapter-5 The Age of Industrialisation
- chapter-6 Work Life and Leisure
- chapter-7 Print Culture and The Modern World
- chapter-8 Novels Society and History