Types of ecology

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Types of ecology

Krichner and Schroter divided ecology into following main Types of Ecology


It is concerned with the study of individual organism or the population of individual organisms in relation to the environment.Resolve all Your Biology Doubts from Physics Wallah.


It is the study of communities of organism and their relationship with environment.

Following are the important branches of ecology

Pop​ulation ecology

It is study of growth, trophic structure, metabolism and regulation of a population and interrelationship of different populations.

Habitat ecology

It includes fresh water ecology, marine ecology, desert ecology, grass land ecology, cropland ecology etc depending upon the nature of habitat.

Taxonomic ecology

It is concerned with the ecology of different taxonomic groups such as microbial ecology, mammalian ecology, insect ecology, etc.

Conservation ecology

It is branch of ecology. Which is concerned with the proper management of natural resources such as forest, sea, mines, land etc for the welfare of human beings.

Palaeo ecology

It deals with the environmental conditions and life of the past ages.

Pr​oduction ecology

It is concerned with the gross and net production of different ecosystems and their proper management in order to get maximum yield.


It is the study of genetic make up of species or population in relation to environment.


It is the study of geographical distribution of plants and animals in different environments.

Levels of Ecological organization

The hierarchy in the levels of organization connected with ecological grouping of organisms is called ecological hierarchy or ecological level of organization. Following are the ecological levels of organization –

Individual (Organism)

It is the basic unit of ecological hierarchy as it continuously exchanges materials and information with its environment.


The different populations of the same organism present in particular geographical areas are called local population/demes. A local population adapted genetically to its particular environment is called ecotype.

Biolo​gical or Biotic Community

It is an assemblage of different species of plants, animals, bacteria and fungi which live in a particular area and interact with one another through competition, predation, mutualism etc.


It is a part of nature consisting of a biological community and its physical environment both interacting and exchanging materials as well as energy.


It is a unit of land distinguished by a natural boundary and having patches of different ecosystem. e.g. southern peninsula


A large regional unit delimited by a specific climatic zone, having a particular major vegetation zone and its associated fauna. e.g. tundra desert, temperate deciduous forest


It is biologically inhabited part of earth along with its physical environment consisting of atmosphere, land and water bodies.

Types of ecology Pdf

Types of ecology

Types of ecology

Types of ecology

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