Population Control Measures

Human Population of Class 12

Population Control Measures

Various methods of birth control (or contraception) available today as follows :

Temporary methods -

employed for time beings; of many types :

  • Safe period (rhythm method) : A week before and after the menses is considered safe period since ovulation occurs around 14th day of onset of menses. Sexual intercourse during this period reduces the chance of pregnancy by 80%.
  • Chemical means : It kills or prevents the sperms reaching ovum. Foam tablets, jellies, pastes and creams of various types; introduced into vagina before intercourse; contain lactic acid, citric acid, boric acid, KMnO4 and ZnSO4.
  • Mechanical means : Fertilization is prevented by various mechanical devices like condoms diaphragm (cervical cap), intra-uterine devices (IUD) placed within the uterus, e.g. loops, copper-T, spiral, ring,bow, shield, etc.
  • Physiological or oral contraceptives
  • a. Oral pills : Mainly contain the hormone (steroids) resembling progesterone and estrogen; inhibits secretion of FSH hence delay in ovulation consists of diosgenine a product of Dioscorea plant. Mala D taken daily, Saheli taken weekly.
  • b. Norplant : Progesterone implanted under the skin below arm which prevents pregnancy for 3 to 4 years.
  • Abortion /MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) at early stage is a common practice. Certain pills also act as abortant by inducing menstruation.

Permanent methods

Male and female both are permanently sterilized surgically by following process :

  • Vasectomy : In male the vasa deferentia is cut and ligated hence sperms can not pass out.
  • Tubectomy : In female fallopian tubes are cut and removed, hence ovum can not enter it, nor the sperm can reach ahead.
  • Tubal ligation : Fallopian tubes behind the oviducal funnel are bent and tied up tightly; can be reopened in future.
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