Physics in overall is the most significant subject of class 12th. Students by now have acquainted sufficient background concepts. The command over physics entails your path to further career and studies. The efforts of the team at Physics Wallah are to signify effective solving and revising through NCERT solutions for class 12 physics.
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Composition and size of nucleus, mass defect and binding energy and their relation.(Explanation with examples)Natural radio activity – alpha, beta and gamma radiation and their properties, radioactive decay law, half-life and average life of a radioactive substance, Nuclear forces – Their Properties – Artificial transmutation of elements – Discovery of Neutron – Radio Isotopes and their uses. Nuclear Fission – Chain Reaction – Principle and Working of a Nuclear Reactor – Nuclear Radiation hazards – Protective Shielding, Types of reactors – Breeder Reactor, Power Reactor and their uses. Nuclear Fusion – Energy of sun and stars – Carbon – Nitrogen cycle and proton – proton cycle – Elementary particles.
Chapter Current Electricity
Elasticity-The property of a body by virtue of which the body regains its original configuration (length, volume or shape) when the deforming forces are removed is called elasticity.
Deforming Force-If a force applied on a body produces a change in the normal positions of the molecules of the body, which results in a change in the configuration of the body either in length, volume or shape, then the force applied in called deforming force. Thus, a deforming force is one which when applied changes the configuration on the body.
Cause of Elasticity-Molecules in a body are bound to each other by bonds when elongated the bonds behave like springs due to inter molecular interaction. When subjected to compression beyond a certain distance or less than a certain inter molecular separation, the molecules, instead of attracting each other, they repel each other.
Perfectly Elastic Body-A body which regains its original configuration immediately and completely after the removal of deforming force from it, is called perfectly elastic body. Quartz and phosphor bronze are the examples of nearly perfectly elastic bodies.
Perfectly Plastic Body-A body which does not regain its original configuration at all on the removal of deforming force, however small the deforming force may be is called perfectly plastic body.
Chapter- Wave Optics
There is nothing in its fundamental nature that distinguishes light from any other electromagnetic wave. What distinguishes light from other electromagnetic waves is that we have receptor (eyes) that are sensitive to electromagnetic radiation only in a narrow range of wavelength from about 400 nm (violet) to about 700 nm (red). We will treat light as wave motion in the context of interference and diffraction, but as a stream of photons while explaining the photoelectric effect. Wave optics involves effects that depend on the wave nature of light.In fact, it is from interference and diffraction experiments that we obtain proof that light behaves (at least in these circumstances) like a wave rather than a stream of particles (as Newton believed).
We can draw many conclusions on the basis of symmetry. In previous chapter we studied the effect of magnetic field on current carrying conductor. When a current loop is placed in a magnetic field it experiences a torque, that rotates it. From symmetry we can say that if a conducting loop is made to rotate in a magnetic field, current should appear in the loop and it happens.First of all, this fact was observed by Michael Faraday. On the basis of his several experimental observations he came to the conclusion that
(i)Whenever there is a relative motion between a magnet (source of magnetic field) and a closed conducting loop, electric current appears in the loop. It happens because of change in magnetic flux associated with the loop.
(ii)Since e.m.f. causes current in the circuit, when loop and magnet are brought in relative motion current flows in the loop. This implies that an emf is set up in the loop. This emf is known as induced emf and its magnitude is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux with time.
Chapter-Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Light form of energy gives sensation of sight.Study of all aspects of light related to rectilinear propagation of light is Ray Optics.Traveling of light along straight line in a homogeneous medium is known as rectilinear propagation of light.Lenses and mirrors using principles of reflection and refraction are used in the study of Ray Optics.This subject is also known as Geometrical Optics.Refraction through prism – Derivation of Refractive index of material of prim for minimum deviation, critical angle. Total Internal Reflection – Relation between Critical Angle and Refractive index, application of total internal reflection to Optical fibers. Defects in Images:Spherical and Chronicle aberration and reducing these defects – Different methods (qualitative treatment).Optical Instruments:Microscope – Telescope – Formula for magnification of Microscope, Astronomical and Terrestrial Telescopes.Construction of Ramsden’s and Huygens eye pieces with ray diagrams. Dispersion of light – dispersive power – pure and impure spectra – condition for obtaining pure spectrum – different kinds of spectra – Emission spectra – Line Band and continuous spectra, absorption spectra.Significance of emission and absorption spectra, Fraunhofer lines and their significance.
Chapter-Magnetism and Matter
Coulomb’s inverse square law – Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field – Magnetic moment of a magnet – Expression for Magnetic induction due to a bar magnet on Axial and Equatorial lines – Superposition of magnetic field – Tangent law – Deflection Magnetometer – Comparison of magnetic moments in TanA and TanB positions by equal distance method and null method – Verification of Inverse square law; Vibration Magnetometer – Experimental determination of M and H.In this chapter, we trace the origin of the science of magnetism, and its subsequent growth. A Greek philosopher, Thales of Miletus had observed as long back as 600 B.C., that a naturally occurring are of iron attracted small pieces of iron towards it.This ore was found in the district of magnesia in Asia minor in Greece.Hence, the ore was named magnetic.The phenomenon of attraction of small bits of iron, steel, cobalt, nickel etc., towards the ore was called magnetism.The iron ore showing this effect was called a natural magnet.
Later the Chinese sailors came to know the directive property of the natural magnet the magnetic and used it as a company. They named magnetite as “lade stone”.When a bar magnet is dipped in the heap of iron filling, they cringed to the ends of the magnet called poles.Due to directive property of a magnet, a freely suspended bar magnet, a freely suspended bar magnet always comes to rest in the north south direction.i.e., the end pointing geographical north is called north pole and the other end pointing geographical south is called south pole.The poles of the magnet always exist in pairs which cannot be separated and have equal strength of attracting property.The line joining the poles of a magnet is called magnetic axis.The vertical plane passing through magnetic axis of the earth is known as magnetic meridian.
Magnets are also prepared by artificial methods and they are known as the artificial magnets.Bar magnets, horse-shoe magnets, pot shaped magnets, etc., are examples of artificial magnets. Horse-shoe magnets are used in cycle dynamos whereas pot shaped magnets are used in loud speakers.Presently, magnets are also used in magneto-therapy to use some deceases.A magnet with single pole is impossible.If a magnet is broken into two or three pieces, each piece behaves like a magnet with unlike poles at the ends.
Discovery of electron – e/m of electron by Thomson’s method – Charge of electron by Millikan’s Oil Drop Method (Principle only).Photo Electric Effect:Definition – laws of Photoelectric Emission – Einstein’s explanation of photoelectric effect.Einsten’s photoelectric equation and its experimental verification by miikan’s method.Photo Electric Cells working and uses.X-Rays:Production of X-rays – Cooldge tube – Xrays Spectrum – Continuous X Ray Spectra – Characteristic X Ray Spectra Mosele’s Law – Its importance.Compton effect (Statement only) – Dual nature of matter deBroglie’s hypothesis (concept only).
The word ‘atom’ has been derived from Greek word which literally means indivisible.In 1803, ‘Dalton’ put forward his atomic theory according to which ‘atom’ was indivisible neutral particle.But Dalton’s model of atom could not explain how electricity could interact with matter.Michael Faraday studied the passage of electricity through liquid solutions.His famous laws of electrolysis established that matter is electrical in nature.In 1870 William Crookes did experiments about discharge of electricity through gases which led to the discovery of cathode rays.he cathode rays consist of stream of negatively charged particles.The next step in the study of electric nature of matter was made by J.J. Thomson in 1897.is studies on the electrical discharge through gases at low pressure established that an atom was divisible.It is now well known that one of the particles which is found as a constituent of all matter and which seems to be the fundamental particle in the universe is the electron.Electrons existing in different substances are alike i.e. they have the same charge and mass.The most important aspect in the study of electron is to determine the charge and mass associated with it because these constants appear in many formulas in Atomic Physics.To begin with, we shall see how the discovery of this sub-atomic particle was made.Then we shall focus on the methods of determining the charge and mass of this fundamental particle.
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode : I – V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator.Logic gates (OR, AND, NAND and NOR).Transistor as a switch. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a communication System (Block Diagram only).
Solids have a definite shape and size and appreciable stiffness. This is due to strong inter atomic forces in solids.Each atom or molecule in a solid is at a fixed average location with respect to other atoms or molecules.
Solids are of two types-crystalline and amorphous. In crystalline solids the atoms or molecules are arranged in regular geometric patterns over a long range. In amorphous solids there is no long range order of arrangement of atoms or molecules.
Q-1. How NCERT textbook help me to score good marks in CBSE board class 12 Physics?
Ans- CBSE class 12th board exam for physics is important and scoring too. To score good makes in board exam one must start his preparation for March when the new session starts. Always follow the NCERT textbook chapter flow. Start preparing your physics notes and add all-important formulas and derivations in your notes. Solve all questions and numerical given in the NCERT.
Q-2. How to use NCERT solutions for class 12 physics effectively?
Ans-Physics is the subject of numerical you will find a good number of questions based on the concept used in the particular chapter. Always remember the NCERT solutions for class 12 physic are no to copied directly. Solve the question by yourself and try it several times before taking help from NCERT solutions for class 12 physics prepared by Physics Wallah. Our experts explain all questions in detail to have more understanding of the concept and its application.
Q-3. Should we need to solve additional MCQ based questions apart from the NCERT exercise?
Ans- Yes MCQ based questions are a very good way to check and build your concept in class 12 Physics. With the help of MCQ based question, you can find out the mistake what you do in the exams. So, solving MCQ based questions is always beneficial you can use NCERT exemplar for solving the good quality of MCQ based questions. Although there is a different reference book having a very good quality of physics MCQ questions like HC Verma.
Q-4. How to solve numerical given in the NCERT exercise for the CBSE board exam?
Ans- To solve numerical given in the exercise of the NCERT text one must have a very clear understanding of the chapter and concepts. Read the chapter from the textbook and try to understand the concepts. Make your notes of all important formulas in a separate sheet and revise it thoroughly. start with some solve example and try to build the approach and learn how to solve the numerical questions on how to use the formulas what the questions and concepts are used in the questions. After that attempt, the exercise questions are given in the NCERT textbook.
Q-5. Is the NCERT class 12 Physics textbook is enough for CBSE board and entrance exam?
Ans- NCERT textbook is recommended by CBSE board and all most all questions asked in the CBSE board are directly from the NCERT textbook. Therefor for the CBSE board exam, the NCERT textbook is enough and sufficient too.
Q-6. Do we need to read an additional textbook for class 12 Physics Theory?
Ans- If you are preparing for the CBSE board exam than the NCERT textbook for class 12 Physics is sufficient but if you are preparing for a competitive entrance exam then you need to add few reference books for more practice.
Q-7 What are the important questions of class 12 Physics?
Ans- For CBSE board the weightage of questions is almost equally in all chapters to score good marks you need to practice all most all chapters. Still, there are few topics which need to give more attention like Optics 14 marks, Electrostatics – 08 marks, Magnetic effect of current and magnetism – 08 marks, EMI and AC – 08 marks, Current electricity – 07 marks, Electronic Devices – 07 marks, Modern physics – 06 marks.