# NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics

Physics in overall is the most significant subject of class 12th. Students by now have acquainted sufficient background concepts. The command over physics entails your path to further career and studies. The efforts of the team at Physics Wallah are to signify effective solving and revising through NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics.

It is crucial to develop an in-depth knowledge of the subject in order to excel in examinations. Physics with such a diversified syllabus makes it difficult for students to learn each and every topic. NCERT Solutions for class 12 physics can help students to secure future with concrete concepts.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics Free PDF Download ### Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields

This chapter helps you solve questions based on calculating the forces between two charged particles that are placed at a distance from each other. You will also learn the reason for the charge that appears in materials when you rub them together, for example, when you rub a silk fabric with a glass rod. Do you know why charge quantization is ignored for large-scale charges? You will also find questions about determining a system's total charge and dipole moment with torque and an electric field.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 1 Electric Charges and Fields of Class 12 Physics

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, superposition principle and continuous charge distribution, forces between multiple charges. Electric field, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a point charge; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field, electric field due to a dipole. Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, Electric flux, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

### Chapter 2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Students will get a brief idea about electrostatic potential by solving the solutions at PhysicsWallah. This chapter includes derivations on topics such as the potential energy of a system of charges, the energy stored in a capacitor, and the potential due to an electric dipole. Problems based on the effective capacitance of capacitors are also solved step by step as per the CBSE syllabus. These concepts and figures are answered in the simplest way to help students perform well in board exams.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance of Class 12 Physics

Electric potential due to a point charge, electric potential, potential difference, equipotential surfaces, a dipole, and a system of charges; electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and electric dipoles in an electrostatic field. Bound charges and free charges inside a conductor, insulators and conductors. Capacitance and Capacitors, Dielectrics and electric polarisation, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Van de Graaff generator, a combination of capacitors in series and parallel, energy stored in a capacitor.

### Chapter 3 Current Electricity

This chapter will help the students to learn the definitions of important terms such as conductance, resistance, cell EMF, drift rate, conductance, resistivity, and internal resistance. Students will also be introduced to resistivity graphs for semiconductors, metals, and alloys. It will provide a good grip when converting complex circuits to simple series and parallel circuits. In this chapter, the terms meter bridge or potentiometer are briefly explained. At the end of the chapter, several practice problems are based on these concepts.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 3 Current Electricity of Class 12 Physics

Electric current, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor; Ohm’s law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical resistance, electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical energy and power. Colour code for carbon resistors, series, and the parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. The internal resistance of a cell, the combination of cells in parallel and series, potential difference, and emf of a cell. Wheatstone bridge, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, metre bridge and potentiometer – principle and applications to measure potential difference, and comparing the emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

### Chapter 4 Moving Charges and Magnetism

Students can learn about different graphs, diagrams, illustrations, and examples from our daily life to remember these concepts for a longer period of time. Derivations of concepts such as Ampere's circuit law and forces between two current-carrying conductors are also clearly explained. Problems based on these concepts carrying multiple marks are also present at the end of the chapter, which should be practiced regularly.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 4 Moving Charges and Magnetism of Class 12 Physics

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and application to current carrying circular loop. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Force on a moving charge in electric fields and uniform magnetic, Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. A Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

### Chapter 5 Magnetism and Matter

This chapter contains various questions, how to determine the Earth's magnetic field, compass direction, and its effects on the poles. Want to know why the Earth's magnetic field changes from point to point in space? See NCERT Solutions available at PhysicsWallah. You will also learn about interstellar space and its weak magnetic field. The magnetic moment of the solenoid is also another important chapter that is discussed in this chapter.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 5 Magnetism and Matter of Class 12 Physics

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. A magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity is due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

### Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Induction

This chapter explains both electricity and magnetism together. The main important concepts here are Faraday's law and Lenz's law. Definitions and problems based on these laws are explained systematically to help students understand the concepts effectively. The magnetic field and the direction of the induced emf must be considered when solving exercises.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 6 Electromagnetic Induction of Class 12 Physics

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

### Chapter 7 Alternating Current

You will be able to learn about AC voltage applied to resistors, inductors, capacitors, and LCR series circuits. The diagrams and graphs provided in the textbook will help you understand the concept. By studying this chapter regularly, students can answer difficult questions and problems that would appear in board exams. An important concept here is the transformer. Studying this chapter will ultimately help students to score good marks not only in board exams but also in clear competitive exams.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 7 Alternating Current of Class 12 Physics

Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current /voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

### Chapter 8 Electromagnetic Waves

The electromagnetism is a physical attraction that occurs in particles that are electrically charged. If the capacitor is charged from an external source, there will be a potential difference between the two capacitive plates that can be determined along with the displacement. Students will also learn about Kirchhoff's rules which have higher marks in board exams. Here is a brief explanation of the RMS value of conduction current and the similarities between displacement and conduction current.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 8 Electromagnetic Waves of Class 12 Physics

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

### Chapter 9 Ray Optics and Optical

This chapter will help the students to learn about the phenomena of refraction, reflection, and dispersion of light using a ray image. Using the laws of reflection and refraction, image formation is clearly explained in this chapter. The construction and functioning of optical devices, including the human eye, are described here. Students will discuss about the natural phenomena of solar radiation, which is important for the exam.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments of Class 12 Physics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection, applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Power of a lens, magnification, combination of thin lenses in contact. Dispersion of light and refraction through a prism. Scattering of light – reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset and blue color of the sky. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, and astigmatism) using lenses. Astronomical and Microscopes telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

### Chapter 10 Wave Optics

Huygens' laws of reflection and refraction are a concept that carries more marks from this chapter. The expression of angular width and Brewster's law are explained with suitable examples so that the students understand clearly. Apart from theory and derivation, students are strongly advised to solve all problems from NCERT Textbook. The Doppler effect is explained comprehensively to improve conceptual knowledge among students.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 10 Wave Optics of Class 12 Physics

Wave optics: Huygens’ principle and wavefront, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts. A Laws of refraction and reflection using Huygens’ principle proof. Sustained and coherent sources of Interference of light, young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, Interference. Width of central maximum, Diffraction due to a single slit. Resolving the power of astronomical and microscopes telescopes. Plane polarised light, Polarisation; Brewster’s law uses plane polarised light and Polaroids.

### Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

This chapter covers important topics such as electron emission, the photoelectric effect, Einstein's photoelectric equation, the experimental effect, and the wave nature of matter. The numerical should also be more important as you can get more marks. Most of the questions from the textbook can be expected to appear in the final exam. By understanding this chapter well, students will be able to achieve remarkable marks and achieve their career goals.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter of Class 12 Physics

Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light, Hertz and Lenard’s observations. Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.

### Chapter 12 Atoms

Class 12 is an important step in a student's life as it helps them build their career in the right direction. The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is an important concept in this chapter. Students will be able to get good marks only if they study and revise the concepts regularly. Physics is a subject that requires more practice as it contains many problems. Important patterns and steps to follow in solving problems should be memorized to get good marks.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 12 Atoms of Class 12 Physics

Alpha – particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

### Chapter 13 Nuclei

Important concepts covered in this chapter are atomic masses and nuclear composition, nuclear size, mass-energy and nuclear binding energy, nuclear force, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. In Physics, one of the best ways to prepare for board exams is to take notes and make points from important formulas and definitions. All concepts are more important because questions will also be based on them in competitive exams.

Topics Covered in Chapter- 13 Nuclei of Class 12 Physics

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars, and isotones. Radioactivity – alpha, beta, and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

### Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

In this chapter, most questions will be based on n-type semiconductors, carriers, and dopants. True or false questions about semiconductors made of carbon, silicon, and germanium and how to determine the energy gap are also clearly explained in this chapter. We will have questions about finding the output frequency of a half-wave and full-wave rectifier.Students will also be able to find the output signal if the two amplifiers are connected in series. Therefore, additional exercises to find the number of holes and electrons in indium, silicon, and arsenic atoms are also discussed.

Topics Covered in Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits of Class 12 Physics

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

### Chapter 15 Communication System

Communication systems are a collection of systems that are used for connection, transmission, interconnection, and communication. These systems are organized into three types: media, technology, and application. Transducers, sensors, amplifiers, and emitters are some examples of modern technology that are part of modern devices. To understand these concepts, students should refer to the best study material available on Physics Wallah.

### CBSE Marking Scheme 2022-23

Students will face board exams twice in their careers. One is class 10, and the other is class 12. The score obtained in class 10 helps students understand the subject in which they are strong, and the marks obtained in class 12 help them plan their future. Keeping this in mind, the CBSE board has evenly distributed the entire syllabus to help students learn all the concepts quickly. After studying the course structure updated by the CBSE board, students will be able to understand the multi-mark chapters and work on them accordingly.

 Unit No. Name of Unit Marks Unit–I Electrostatics 16 Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Unit-II Current Electricity Chapter–3: Current Electricity Unit–III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 17 Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter Unit–IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction Chapter–7: Alternating currents Unit–V Electromagnetic Waves 18 Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves Unit-VI Optics Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Chapter–10: Wave Optics Unit-VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 12 Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Unit-VIII Atoms and Nuclei Chapter-12: Atoms Chapter–13: Nuclei Unit-IX Electronic Devices 7 Chapter–14: Semiconductor -Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Total 70

### Why NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics are important?

The chapter-oriented approach help students to solve and understand even critical concepts. The step-by-step approach with the scientific temperament of our faculties can be effectively represented in NCERT Solutions for class 12 physics. Understanding each and everything with detailed concepts can help students to tackle tricky questions with ease. A numerical approach is crucial for a subject like Physics. Whereas other subjects can be easily theorised, but for NCERT Solutions for class 12 physics conceptual approach is necessary.

The Hi-Tech advanced era we like it couldn’t be possible without command over physics. The complete NCERT solutions for class 12 physics is derived considering the latest syllabus. We at Physics Wallah build our students for the futuristic competitive world.

Since NCERT follows a stringent conceptual ideology, where NCERT solutions for class 12 physics come to great help. At Physics Wallah we give topmost preference to error-free content. Students can right away follow these questions in order to score topmost marks.

The foundation of Physics Wallah is held by experts having years of experience. A detailed analysis of concepts is explained in the question provided. We make an effort to minimise the probable causes of losing marks. The NCERT solutions for class 12 physics are effort-free in every aspect. Students can use this study material for revision just before the examination. At Physics Wallah complete study material is free of cost and ensures complete support.

### How to Study NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics effectively?

Whether they are board exams or competitive national level examinations, every minuscule care is taken by team while drafting NCERT solutions for class 12 physics. A simple click can provide you with the expert-created study material. The complete set of solution is bifurcated into various sections and on the basis of chapters.

Students can right use this solution to score extensive marks in competitive exams. Physics is one such subject which has an extensive syllabus.

### Why Physics Wallah is best for NCERT solutions for Class 12 Physics?

Many a time’s students face difficulty in comprehending with the syllabus, where NCERT solutions for class 12 physics come to rescue. With the help of Physics Wallah get assured to score top marks. Student can also find various short cut techniques in the NCERT Solutions for class 12 physics which makes understanding and solving questions simple.

The complete solution set has been created in a very concise and effective manner. The experts in our team have already aced many national level competitive examinations. The complete NCERT solutions for class 12 physics is prepared in Pdf format. This brings students with the capability to share this among their friends.

### Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

Q1. How NCERT textbook help me to score good marks in CBSE board class 12 Physics?

Ans. CBSE class 12th board exam for physics is important and scoring too. To score good makes in board exam one must start his preparation for March when the new session starts. Always follow the NCERT textbook chapter flow. Start preparing your physics notes and add all-important formulas and derivations in your notes. Solve all questions and numerical given in the NCERT.

Q2. How to use NCERT solutions for class 12 physics effectively?

Ans. Physics is the subject of numerical you will find a good number of questions based on the concept used in the particular chapter. Always remember the NCERT solutions for class 12 physic are no to copied directly.

Solve the question by yourself and try it several times before taking help from NCERT solutions for class 12 physics prepared by Physics Wallah. Our experts explain all questions in detail to have more understanding of the concept and its application.

Q3. Should we need to solve additional MCQ based questions apart from the NCERT exercise?

Ans. Yes MCQ based questions are a very good way to check and build your concept in class 12 Physics. With the help of MCQ based question, you can find out the mistake what you do in the exams. So, solving MCQ based questions is always beneficial you can use NCERT exemplar for solving the good quality of MCQ based questions. Although there is a different reference book having a very good quality of physics MCQ questions like HC Verma.

Q4. How to solve numerical given in the NCERT exercise for the CBSE board exam?

Ans. To solve numerical given in the exercise of the NCERT text one must have a very clear understanding of the chapter and concepts. Read the chapter from the textbook and try to understand the concepts.

Make your notes of all important formulas in a separate sheet and revise it thoroughly. start with some solve example and try to build the approach and learn how to solve the numerical questions on how to use the formulas what the questions and concepts are used in the questions. After that attempt, the exercise questions are given in the NCERT textbook.

Q5. Is the NCERT class 12 Physics textbook is enough for CBSE board and entrance exam?

Ans. NCERT textbook is recommended by CBSE board and all most all questions asked in the CBSE board are directly from the NCERT textbook. Therefor for the CBSE board exam, the NCERT textbook is enough and sufficient too.

Q6. Do we need to read an additional textbook for class 12 Physics Theory?

Ans. If you are preparing for the CBSE board exam than the NCERT textbook for class 12 Physics is sufficient but if you are preparing for a competitive entrance exam then you need to add few reference books for more practice.

Q7 What are the important questions of class 12 Physics?

Ans. For CBSE board the weightage of questions is almost equally in all chapters to score good marks you need to practice all most all chapters. Still, there are few topics which need to give more attention like Optics 14 marks, Electrostatics – 08 marks, Magnetic effect of current and magnetism – 08 marks, EMI and AC – 08 marks, Current electricity – 07 marks, Electronic Devices – 07 marks, Modern physics – 06 marks.