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Analogy means relationship.
Students must master the idea that analogies require identifying the relationship between certain terms and then looking for a term with the same relationship to a another term. After explaining this concept to students using examples, challenge them to find relationships between terms.
Analogies come in four basic categories:
It is helpful for students to understand these different types of relationships that an analogy might contain and then to spend time practicing with each different type of analogy.
A semantic analogy involves word meanings, and they might ask a student to recognize synonyms, antonyms, word intensity or parts of an expression.
A classification analogy tests relationships having to do with categories or parts of a whole.
Association analogies might involve relationships such as characteristics of an object, order, cause and effect, function of an object, or tools used for a purpose.
Non-semantic analogies involve logic or mathematics, and might test a student’s knowledge of fractions, multiples or negation. They could also contain letter or sound relationships, such as sound patterns, rhymes or homophones.