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Maths Symbols

Math is all about numbers, symbols and Maths formulas. These symbols are required for different operations. These symbols are used in different mathematical fields. From representing the equation to telling the relationship between the two numbers. All mathematical symbols are used in mathematical operations for various concepts.

Maths Symbol

There are so many mathematical symbols that are important for students. To make it easier for you we’ ve given here the mathematical symbols table with definitions and examples. From addition, subtraction to geometry to algebra, etc, there are various types of symbols. Find all the symbols in the tables given below:

Basic Maths Symbols

In Mathematics, it's all about numbers, symbols and formulas. Here we're discussing the foundation of Mathematics. In simple words, without symbols, we cannot do arithmetic. Mathematical symbols and symbols are considered to represent a value.

Basic mathematical symbols are used to express mathematical ideas. The relationship between the symbol and the value refers to the basic mathematical requirement. With the help of symbols, certain concepts and ideas are clearly explained. Here is a list of commonly used mathematical symbols with words and meanings. Also, an example is given to understand the use of mathematical symbols.

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

=

equals sign equality 10 = 2+8

10 is equal to 2+8

not equal sign inequality 2 ≠ 8

2 is not equal to 8

approximately equal approximation sin (0.01) ≈ 0.01,

x ≈ y means is approximately equal to y

> strict inequality greater than 8 > 2

8 is greater than 2

< strict inequality less than 2 < 8

2 is less than 8

inequality greater than or equal to 8 ≥ 2,

x ≥ y means x is greater than or equal to y

inequality less than or equal to 2 ≤ 8,

x ≤ y means is less than or equal to y

( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first 2 × (4+8) = 24
[ ] brackets calculate expression inside first [(2+3)×(4+6)] = 50
+ plus sign addition 2 + 8 = 10
minus sign subtraction 8 - 2 = 6
± plus - minus both plus and minus operations 2 ± 8 = 10 or -6
± minus - plus both minus and plus operations 2∓8 = -6 or 10
* asterisk multiplication 2*8 = 16
× times sign multiplication 2 × 8 = 16
multiplication dot multiplication 2 sdot; 8 = 16
÷ division sign / obelus division 8 ÷ 2 = 4
/ division slash division 8 / 2 = 4
horizontal line division / fraction 6—2=3
mod modulo remainder calculation 7 mod 2 = 1
. period decimal point, decimal separator 3.84 = 3+84/100
ab; power exponent 23=8
a^b caret exponent 2^3=8
√a square root √⋅√a =a √4=±2
3√a cube root 3√a⋅3√a⋅3√a⋅& =a 3√8=2
4√a fourth root 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a =a 4√16=±2
n√a n-th root (radical)   for n=3,n√8=2
% percent 1%=1/100 10%× 80=8
per-mile 1‰=1/1000=0.1% 10‰ × 80=0.8
ppm per-million 1ppm=1/1000000 10ppm × 80=0.0008
ppb per-billion 1ppb=1/1000000000 10ppb × 80=8×10&minussup7;
ppt per-trillion 1ppt=10&minussup12; 10ppt × 80=8×10&minussup10;

Geometry Symbols

There are geometry symbols which are used in mathematics. Here we’re mentioning each and every geometry symbols which are necessary for students to know.

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example
formed by two rays ∠ABC=30°
  measured angle   ABC=30°
  spherical angle   AOB=30°
right angle =90° α=90°
° degree 1 turn=360° α=60°
deg degree 1 turn=360deg α=60deg
prime arcminute, 1°=60′ α=60°59′
double prime arcsecond, 1′=60″ α=60°59′ 59″
  line infinite line  
AB line segment line from point A to point B  
  ray line that start from point A  
perpendicular perpendicular lines (90° angle) AC ⊥ BC
parallel parallel lines AB ∥ CD
congruent to equivalence of geometric shapes and size ∆ABC≅∆XYZ
similarity same shapes, not same size ∆ABC∼∆XYZ
Δ triangle triangle shape ;ΔABC ≅ΔBCD
∣x−y∣ distance distance between points x and y ∣x−y∣=5
π pi constant π=3.141592654...

is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

c=π⋅d=2⋅π⋅r
rad radians radians angle unit 360°=2π rad
grad gradians ∕ gons grads angle unit 360°;=400 grad
g gradians ∕ gons grads angle unit 360°=400g

Algebra Symbols

Algebra is a mathematical component of symbols and rules to deceive those symbols. In algebra, those symbols represent non-fixed values, called variables. How sentences describe the relationship between certain words, in algebra, mathematics describes the relationship between variables.

A Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example
χ x variable unknown value to find when 2χ=4, then χ=2
equivalence identical to  
equal by definition equal by definition  
equal by definition equal by definition  
approximately equal weak approximation 11∽10
approximately equal approximation sin(0.01) ≈ 0.01
proportional to proportional to y ∝ x when y=kx, k constant
lemniscate infinity symbol  
much less than much less than 1≪1000000
⁽ ⁾ much grataer than much grataer than 1000000 ≫1
⁽ ⁾ parentheses calculate expression inside first 2 *(3+5) = 16
[ ] brackets calculate expression inside first [ (1+2)*(1+5) ] = 18
{ } braces set  
⌊ χ ⌋ floor brackets rounds number to lower integer ⌊4.3⌋ = 4
⌈ χ ⌉ ceiling brackets rounds number to upper integer ⌈4.3⌉ = 5
χ! exclamation mark factorial 4! =1*2*3*4 = 24
|χ| vertical bars absolute value | -5 | = 5
Af(χ) function of x maps values of x to f(x) f(x)=3x+5
(f°g) function composition (f°g)(x)=f(g(x)) f(x)=3x,g(x)=x-1⇒(f°g)(x)=3(x-1)
(a,b) open interval (a,b)={ x | a < x < b } x∈(2,6)
[a,b] closed interval [a,b]={x | a≤ x ≤b } x&isin[2,6]
Δ delta change / difference Δ=t1-t0
Δ discriminant Δ=b²-4ac  
sigma summation - sum of all values in range of series ∑x1=x1+x2+...+xn
∑∑ sigma double summation  
capital pi product - product of all values in range of series ∏x1=x1∙x2∙...∙xn
e e constant / Euler's number e = 2.718281828... e =lim (1+1/x)x,x→∞
γ Euler-Mascheroni constant γ= 0.5772156649...  
φ golden ratio golden ratio constant  
π pi constant π = 3.141592654...

is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

c=π⋅d=2⋅π⋅r

Linear Algebra Symbol

These are the linear Algebraic Symbols. It's also a part of mathematics. These symbols are generally used in higher standard. Here's the list of all linear algebra symbols which are helpful for you guys.

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example
· dot scalar product a·b
× cross vector product a×b
A⊗B tensor product tensor product of A and B A ⊗ B
  inner product    
[ ] brackets matrix of numbers  
| A | determinant determinant of matrix A  
det(A) determinant determinant of matrix A  
∥ x ∥ double vertical bars norm  
AT transpose matrix transpose (AT ) ij = ( A ) ji
A Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose (A ) ij = ( A ) ji
A* Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose (A* ) ij = ( A ) ji
A-1 inverse matrix AA-1=/  
rank(A) matrix rank rank of matrix A rank(A)= 3
dim(U) dimension dimension of matrix A dim(U)= 3

Probability and Statistics Symbols

Probability and statistics are also a part of mathematics. As you’ve already studied probability and statistics from the junior classes. So here’s the list of the most important probability and statistics symbols.

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example
P(A) probability function probability of event A P(A)= 0.5
P(A ∩ B) probability of events intersection probability that of events A and B P(A ∩ B)= 0.5
P(A ∪ B) probability of events union probability that of events A or B P(A ∪ B)= 0.5
P(A | B) conditional probability function probability of event A given event B occured P(A | B)= 0.3
f( X ) probability density function (pdf) P( a ≤ x ≤ b ) =∫f( X ) dx  
F( X ) cumulative distribution function (cdf) F( X ) =P( X ≤ x)  
μ population mean mean of population values μ= 10
E( X ) expectation value expected value of random variable X E( X ) = 10
E( X | Y ) conditional expectation expected value of random variable X given Y E( X | Y = 2 ) = 5
var( X ) variance variance of random variable X var( X )= 4
σ2 variance variance of population values σ2= 4
std( X ) standard deviation standard deviation of random variable X std( X ) = 2
σx standard deviation standard deviation value of random variable X σx = 2
  median middle value of random variable x  
cov( X,Y ) covariance covariance of random variables X and Y cov( X,Y )= 4
corr( X,Y ) correlation correlation of random variables X and Y corr( X,Y )= 0.6
cov( X,Y ) covariance covariance of random variables X and Y cov( X,Y )= 4
corr( X,Y ) correlation correlation of random variables X and Y corr( X,Y )= 0.6
ρ x,y correlation correlation of random variables X and Y ρ x,y= 0.6
summation summation - sum of all values in range of series  
∑∑ double summation double summation  
Mo mode value that occurs most frequently in population  
MR mid-range MR =( xmax+xmin)/2  
Md sample median half the population is below this value  
Q1 lower / first quartile 25 % of population are below this value  
Q2 median / second quartile 50% of population are below this value = median of samples  
Q3 upper / third quartile 75% of population are below this value  
x sample mean average / arithmetic mean x=(2+5+9) /3=5.333
s2 sample variance population samples variance estimator s2= 4
s sample standard deviation population samples standard deviation estimator s= 2
Zx standard score Zx=(x-x)/ Sx  
X ~ distribution of X distribution of random variable X X ~ N (0,3)
X ~ distribution of X distribution of random variable X X ~ N (0,3)
N(μσ2) normal distribution gaussian distribution X ~ N (0,3)
U( a,b ) uniform distribution equal probability in range a,b X ~ U (0,3)
exp(λ) exponential distribution f(x)=λe-λx x≥0  
gamma(c, λ) gamma distribution f(x)=λ c xc-1 e-λx / Γ ( c ) x≥0  
χ2(k) chi-square distribution f(x)=xk/2-1 e-x/2 / ( 2k/2Γ )(k/2) )  
F (k1,k2) F distribution    
Bin( n,p ) binomial distribution F(k) = nCk pk(1-p)n-k  
Poisson( λ ) Poisson distribution F(k) = λke-λ / k !  
Geom( p ) geometric distribution F(k) = p( 1-p)k  
HG( N ,K ,n ) hyper-geometric distribution    
Bern( p ) Bernoulli distribution    

Greek Alphabet Letters

Mathematicians often use Greek letters in their work to represent flexibility, consistency, functions and more. Some of the Greek symbols commonly used in Maths are listed below -

Upper Case Letter Lower Case Letter Greek Letter Name English Equivalent Letter Name Pronounce
Α α Alpha a al-fa
Β β Beta b be-ta
Γ γ Gamma g ga-ma
Δ δ Delta d del-ta
Ε ε Epsilon e ep-si-lon
Ζ ζ Zeta z Ze-ta
Η η Eta h eh-ta
Θ θ Theta th te-ta
Ι ι Iota i io-ta
Κ κ Kappa k ka-pa
Λ λ Lambda l lam-da
Μ μ Mu m m-yoo
Μ μ Mu m m-yoo
Ν ν Nu n noo
Ν ν Nu n noo
Ξ ξ Xi x x-ee
Ο ο Omicron o o-mee-c-ron
Π π Pi p pa-yee
Ρ ρ Rho r row
Σ σ Sigma s sig-ma
Τ τ Tau t ta-oo
Υ υ Upsilon u oo-psi-lon
Φ φ Phi ph f-ee
Χ χ Chi ch kh-ee
Ψ ψ Psi ps p-see
Ω ω Omega o o-me-ga

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1. What do math symbols mean?

Ans. It means all the symbols which show the quantities or the relationship between two quantities.

Q2. What is the value of pi?

Ans. The value of pi is 22/7 and 3.14. It is a Greek alphabet. It is an irrational number. While solving NCERT Solutions you'll find many questions about where you've to use them.

Q3. What is the * symbol called?

Ans. In English, the * symbol generally means asterisk, but in Mathematics it is generally used to represent multiplication between two quantities.

Q4. How are symbols used in math?

Ans. The symbols make it easier to refer to Mathematical quantities. It is interesting to note that Mathematics is wholly based on numbers and symbols. The math symbols refer to different quantities and represent the relationship between two quantities.

Q5. What does => mean in math?

Ans. It stands for "implies that." For example, x=2⟹x2=4 - if x is 2, then it is evident that x squared is 4; the symbol essentially shows a function here.

Q6. What is the oldest math symbol?

Ans. The Humble plus sign is one of the oldest mathematical symbols agreed upon but came into use around 1360. The measuring mark was established in 1557 by Scottish mathematician Robert Recorde.

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